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Such symptoms resolve to an average level of 80% (by self-report) within an average of 35 training sessions cheap cetirizine 5 mg line milk allergy symptoms in 5 week old. Recoveries tend to hold for the long term cetirizine 5mg discount allergy testing qld health, as the brain continues to employ its recovered capacities buy cetirizine with paypal allergy symptoms of the eyes. The training may be fruitfully conducted at any time after the injury— even years later. Many of the consequences of stroke are not localized to the site of injury, and are similar to those listed above for minor head injury: sleep problems, irritability, mood variability, depression. The specific deficits attributed to the stroke—gait, speech, one-side weakness or neglect, take more time for recovery, and also the recovery may not be complete. There may be benefit to continued long-term training on an episodic basis, as the brain gradually builds on its recovered capacities. Whereas anxiety responds more readily to peripheral biofeedback intervention, depression seems to respond more readily to neurofeedback. The training also addresses the sleep disregulations that are typically seen in the context of anxiety and depression. Regulation of mood states may turn out to be one of the most prominent applications of neurofeedback. Neurofeedback for addictions the latest breakthrough in the field of neurofeedback is with respect to addictions, where conventional treatment has a notoriously bad record. Over the last ten years, neurofeedback has been found effective in keeping people in treatment successfully, and ultimately in maintaining sobriety after discharge from the treatment program. Secondarily, neurofeedback can be helpful with some craving issues, because brain function can be normalized so that there may no longer be the physiological dependency on the substance. Thirdly, it has helped in terms of personality measures (which were thought to be stable! This is particularly important because much of addiction is sustained by issues of early trauma, and the training helps to resolve those issues. The success in relapse prevention has been most solidly demonstrated for alcoholism, with follow- up data now available for ten years post-treatment. More recently, these findings have been reproduced also for cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin addictions. In all of the above research studies, the training was combined with conventional treatment which involved individual and group therapy, as well as continuing involvement with 12-step programs to aid in the maintenance of sobriety. Box 160097 Austin, Texas 78716-0097 (512) 328-9639 Specific Applications: Pain Management Vulvar Pain Foundation Newsletter; Cookbook; Regional Meetings; Networking; Referral list for biofeedback P. Louis Kervran Translation and Interpretation by George Ohsawa Second Edition Revised, Expanded, and Updated George Ohsawa Macrobiotic Foundation Chico, California www. Mainstream scientists still consider the “present atomic theory,” as Ohsawa called it, to be excellently con- frmed beyond a reasonable doubt. Biological transmutation, on the other hand, has failed to gain wide acceptance, despite Kervran’s claim that “the evidence for biological transmutation is so over- whelming that it cannot be rejected. Facts can be checked by anyone and reproduced at will while results can be measured and weighed with ordinary laboratory scales. First, the fndings of Kervran and Ohsawa are entirely valid, but closed-minded scientists have failed to recognize their validity and are still fooled by current scientifc “fallacies. Their results are based either on measurement errors or misinterpreted observations. Indeed, transmutation of chemical elements may have nothing to do with their fndings. In any case, the evidence Kervran and Ohsawa brought forward in favor of biological transmutation must be considered inconclusive because 3 4 Biological Transmutation there is insuffcient proof that the phenomenon actually exists. Seeing that biological transmutation is in strong contradiction to what is considered well-established science, the supporting evidence for it would have to be absolutely solid in order to convince the scientifc community of its validity. While Kervran claimed that his evidence was overwhelming, his experimental methods have been criticized by no less than David Cuthbert, who was formerly generally supportive of research in the feld of biological transmutation. Cuthbert stated in a 1999 report, “Kervran’s practical experiments have in my opinion…been rightly criticized for their generally unscientifc nature; evidence given was often circumstantial or anecdotal; controls were generally absent or inadequate; raw data and its statistical handling, if any, were not published; the studied organisms were not always kept in any sort of closed system. While some researchers claim to have replicated some of Kervran’s fndings, others have seen no evidence of transmutation when trying to work under the most strictly controlled experimental conditions. These kinds of experiments are prone to systematic error, meaning that some of the incoming or outgoing substances are missed by the way the measurements are performed. This, therefore, warrants a critical examination of any experiments that claim to support biological transmutation. If one wants to show that the phenomenon of biological transmutation exists and frmly establish it as commonly accepted fact, more research is needed. Reading Kervran’s work, it appears he was very quick to conclude that transmutation had occurred whenever he could not readily fnd a conventional explanation for a particular observation. However, his inability to fnd a conventional explanation at the time he and Ohsawa worked, does not necessarily mean, based on current knowledge, that a conventional explanation could not be found today. For example, in one instance, Kervran posits that carbon monoxide poisoning suffered by welders must have originated from nitrogen that was changed by transmutation. Today, modern understanding Foreword 5 of the chemistry involved in welding can easily explain how carbon monoxide can result from normal chemical reactions. Another example: Kervran discusses the discrepancy between nitrogen intake and excretion and, again, concludes that transmutation was happening. However, he did not take into account the fact that the body uses nitrogen in the process of building protein, and, in so doing, absorbs more nitrogen than it excretes. The opposite happens when protein is broken down -- nitrogen from the protein in the body is freed and subsequently excreted. This explains excess excretion of nitrogen under starvation conditions without the occurrence of nuclear transmutation. No doubt, Kervran raised a lot of interesting questions, but his conclusions have to be weighed against more recent understanding. Also in this light, a careful reading of the text uncovers various examples where Kervran’s understanding needs to be revised. For example, his statement that “Free nitrogen does not exist in atomic form—it can only be found as the molecule N2” is clearly incorrect. Also, scientists nowadays would certainly not agree with the assertion that “Specialists in nuclear physics recognize that accepted theories are not irrevocably applicable to the behavior of elements with an atomic number under thirty. In later years, Kervran himself moved away from his earlier theoretical explanation of transmutation. He had suggested a model that he called “frittage,” the French word for sintering. Simply speaking, the idea is that nuclei can enter a special kind of binding that is tighter than a chemical binding, but not as tight as the binding involved in nuclear reactions. Kervran does not explicitly introduce this model in the text presented here, but he hints at in a few places, particularly in the section about nitrogen. Frittage is a very creative idea to explain why biological transmutations would not need to involve the huge energies deemed essential to nuclear reactions by conventional physics. But, if that were going on, physicists would be able to distinguish such unusual bound states from fully fused nuclei, and their existence would not have escaped notice. Ultimately, Kervran offered a different explanation, involving weak interactions (another known force that is weaker than both the electromagnetic and the nuclear force).

As the name electrostatics implies the properties do not depend on organized electron flow where p is the permeability of the medium which is but rather distribution of positive and negative large for ferro-magnetic materials (p for air 1) cheapest generic cetirizine uk allergy louisville ky. Current electricity is concerned coils C1 and C2 (described above) the magnetic flux with the flow of electrical energy by charge carriers would be p times as great if the coils are wound over (electrons) between two points having a potential 54 Basic physics for radiology difference between them buy discount cetirizine 5 mg on line allergy symptoms ragweed. This difference is the elec- tromotive force (emf ) measured in volts and can be Box 2 cetirizine 10 mg fast delivery allergy treatment results. The static electric charge arises when Example 1 electrons are transferred from one object to another. An object with excess electrons has a negative charge If I 4Cs 1 and t 10 s then and, conversely, an object having lost electrons has a Q 40 coulombs positive charge. The basic measurement of charge is the coulomb (C) (Charles Coulomb, 1736–1806; 18 Example 2 French physicist): 1 coulomb 6. Energy gained by an electron beam in an the laws of electrostatics state that similar X-ray tube charges ( , or , ) on separate bodies repel; If 3 1017 electrons representing 50 mA (1. The force of two 10 19C each electron) move along an X-ray tube charged bodies is proportional to their charge F q. Also the charges will be closer giving a stronger electric field where the conductor is most curved. The inverse square electron beam produced by an electrically heated fila- 1 2 law also applies to charged bodies. Before an electric current can flow there must describes Coulomb’s law which plays an important be a pressure difference or driving force between the part in X-ray tube design for defining electron beam electrodes. Volta, the force is proportional to the charge (F q) 1745–1827; Italian physicist) and applies to both static and every charge produces an electric field in the and current electricity. Electrostatics are also energy acquired by an electron when it moves between employed to control the dimensions of an electron a potential difference of 1 V. Equivalent values of the elec- sharp edges carry a strong electric field and this neg- tron volt are: ative potential can repel the electron beam, control- 1eV 1. Smaller currents are measured in mil- rectified power supplies and is used as the final power liamps (mA; 10 3A) and microamps (mA; 10 6A). Electrical current is caused by the transport of two points on a wire carrying a constant current of electrons and is measured in amperes (A) (A. One ohm mercial electric power is measured in kilowatts maintains a current of one amp at one volt so that (kW). Since all conductors have some electrical area a) then resistance decreases by ?4. This is stepped up prior to transmission along the high voltage power Electrical power P relationships are derived as lines; the voltages sometimes exceed 500 000 volts. Power the transmitted high voltage is successively stepped loss is calculated by deriving electrical power P as down in order to supply cities, towns, streets, and eventually individual consumers. At 110 V, approximately 1 A is flowing so the power lost in the cable is I2R 1 2 2W Hence 2% of the lamp power is lost in the cable. The power loss is I2R so Primary at 500 V there is total power lost in the cable Magnetic np at 10 000 V, 10% of the power is lost flux lines at 100 000 V, 0. A step-up a transformer depend on the size of the primary and transformer has a turns ratio 1 and a step-down secondary windings. If Is and Ip are the secondary and pri- since the induced secondary voltage Es is influenced mary currents then: by the cross section area of the transformer core A and the number of turns n and the frequency: Is Es Ip Ep (2. A step-up transformer supplies the very high the current needed for an X-ray machine is cal- voltage necessary to generate the X-rays. For an X-ray tube supply of 100 keV and a rela- tive overall size (A n), for 50 Hz transformer E I being 2000. Ip Ep 2000 50 Hz 100 keV 3 1666 60 Hz 100 keV ( 125 10 100 10 1000 100 Hz 100 keV 220 20 5 kHz 100 keV 56 A 10 10 kHz 100 keV A 110 V supply would require 112 A. X-ray equipment requiring high currents instead of 50 Hz, reduces the transformer size by commonly employs high voltage 3-phase supplies. An Voltage isolation transformer with equal turns ratio is used in 1 Current order to separate the mains supply from the machine power supply; this reduces electrical shock hazards to personnel using the equipment. A single winding auto- transformer is sometimes employed in order to com- pensate for power loss in the high voltage cables. The sine wave for a mains supply shows maximum energy when the current is maxi- P S sin (2. The control of high volt- ages associated with X-ray production was, in the thermionic emission, forming a cloud. The concen- past, performed by mechanical switching but is now tration of electrons causes a negative space charge almost universally performed by electronic devices. Electrons only ing signal voltages representing the X-ray spectrum, flow from the negative cathode (filament) to the posi- sound or radio waves. As the filament temperature is increased from T1 to T3 in the simple device shown in Fig. The saturation current When heat is applied to a wire filament, electrons close level depends on the applied voltage between anode to the surface gain energy and leave the metal due to and cathode (x-axis). The X-ray tube is per- haps the remnant vacuum tube device that has not been replaced. Semiconducting materials include sili- Electron cloud con, germanium, and gallium arsenide: the former predominates. These materials are doped with impu- rities to produce n-type and p-type semiconductors. The p-type semiconduc- Negative tors have ‘holes’ or orbital gaps as majority carriers. The junction diode exhibits different properties when connected to different polarity ( , ). Before current supply is connected a small depletion layer exists between the p- and n-boundary. If the posi- Metal filament tive pole of a battery is connected to the p-type and the negative pole to the n-type then a current flows. When a p–n junction is part of a circuit and the voltage varied from negative to posi- T2 tive as plotted in Fig. Current flow does not T1 obey Ohm’s law since current flow shows an expo- nential relationship. They have replaced all thermionic diodes in X-ray equipment giving a large reduction in size and cooler operation. Three layer semiconductor devices are used for (b) Anode–cathode voltage difference signal amplification. The three potential difference between anode and cathode causing regions are collector, base, and emitter with the load a current flow. In the absence of a current (Ib) in the circuit flow (anode current) increases with increased filament (base-emitter) there is only a very small current temperature (T1 to T3).

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During the past couple of decades dra- error at each step bring that total error risk to 22% matic improvements have been made in the [5] discount cetirizine 5mg visa allergy forecast map. This can be demonstrated in real life with adoption of standardization in diagnostic crite- measured errors as well 5mg cetirizine with visa allergy testing yorkville toronto. This is the reason why many have used lean gested that inter-observer concordance in the production techniques to improve histologic pro- classifcation of breast ductal proliferative dis- cesses cetirizine 10mg otc allergy symptoms for dogs, gain effciency, and reduce errors. Rosai asked a panel of experts to review the all misidentifcation case rate and histological same set of cases and render their diagnoses. The difference is a stark sity, and (4) reduction of extraneous information demonstration of the power of standardization. Valenstine based his conclusion by This has been shown in other areas of surgical extension of research performed in other felds pathology such as urothelial neoplasia, Barrett’s outside of medicine including cockpit design in dysplasia and organ rejection [1, 2, 31, 32]. This is particularly important in oncology where different treatment options are Human Intervention available and are dependent on pathologic grading, staging, and tumor marker expression [33, 34]. Surgical pathology remains a process that is This is easily demonstrated using the example of heavily dependent on human physical and intel- breast cancer where a variety of treatment options lectual activity. The adoption most assuredly dependent on humans doing their of national standards in the form of standard grad- jobs. As such, surgical pathology is subject to ing and staging of tumors has greatly facilitated human error. As in other areas of health care, a and accelerated national treatment trials in the systems approach to quality management in sur- evaluation of potential therapies. This has been gical pathology has been recommended to reduce further accentuated with the use of standardized errors [37, 38]. At its core, this management style computer based forms that have been shown in advocates design of processes with two features multiple studies but none as eloquently as in a ran- in mind; prevention of errors and detection of domized prospective examination of pathology errors. The con- In design of systems that prevent errors, two trol arm of the study included eight hospitals that methods have prevailed. First, introduction of did not use computer based cancer reports (check- automation whenever possible works well where lists) and the study arm included eight hospitals information must be re-inputted into the system that used computer based cancer reports (check- [15]. This study concluded that reports in the hos- as the use of barcode technology are good exam- pitals with the computer checklists were more ples where human intervention in the form of complete 28% of the time. The study also found reentering information may be avoided with the that clinicians found these reports preferable while use of automated equipment thus reducing the pathologists found them acceptable. Automation may be used to One aspect of reports that should be consid- simplify a process in the sense that a machine ered is the ability of clinicians to derive the infor- will do multiple steps, whereas from the human mation that they need to treat the patient from the perspective the process is reduced to one or two report. Machines also have the added advantage of tinely misinterpreted pathologists’ reports 30% reducing procedural variations because machines of the time [35]. Factors that were cited to be operate at a tight range of specifcation and are associated with improvement of this gap included not subject to distraction. Automatic stainers and familiarity with report format and clinical experi- coverslipers demonstrate this utility well. Valenstine in a review of pathology Reducing cognitive errors at the point of diag- report formatting suggests that four evidence- nosis has been challenging, but methods have based and time-tested principles may be helpful emerged that reduce or detect error. The principle in formatting reports for more effective commu- method of error prevention has been redundancy nication. These include: (1) the use of diagnostic in the form of review of cases before or after headlines to emphasize key points, (2) mainte- cases are verifed or signed out. Some larger helps lower the number of amended reports and pathology practice groups have adopted com- possibly the error rate [25, 39, 40]. Individuals in each for cases that were reviewed after they were subspecialty are responsible for updating them- signed out. Renshaw and Gould demonstrated selves on the current literature in that feld and that cases reviewed by greater than one patholo- often are reasonably knowledgeable on the treat- gist resulted in a lower disagreement rate and ment options and other clinical scenarios. Novis also presented evi- type of practice the pathologists communicate dence that review of cases by two pathologists vs. Also, in for case review has not been formulated, but may larger groups there tends to be multiple special- be dependent on the type of material seen at any ists in the same feld and so there is ample depth one institution and the number of pathologists and opportunity to discuss and work though participating in case sign-out. In intermediate sized pathology after they have been verifed is an extension of the groups, a similar strategy has taken form, same principle, but falls into the realm of error although not to the same extent. In these groups, detection, since this process would occur beyond most pathologists are generalists, but have sub- the point of error prevention. Each pathologist with sub- the use of checklists has been advocated as a specialty interest takes on the responsibility of tool to control the extent of human intervention. For a With the use of checklists, a pathologist is small practice, it is much more diffcult to be up reminded of all the items that should be in that to date in all subspecialty felds. Indeed, a computer system can be built to smaller practices tend to liberally use expert force individuals to complete a report before a consultation in areas outside their comfort zone. Checklists Therefore, we have at least three practice sys- can also be used for a whole host of tasks in the tems that attempt to address the knowledge laboratory to assure that things get done [42]. It is not clear which sys- example of this includes a list of tasks that a tech- tem is best or produces the least amount of nologist or clerk must perform to prepare an errors. I am unaware of any studies that have accessioning station at the beginning of the day attempted to directly measure the effcacy of and a list of tasks that must be done at the end of these practice settings. These studies suggest that specialists were Various subspecialty groups have expended a generally more knowledgeable in their area of great deal of effort to establish diagnostic crite- interest and were quicker to adopt new treat- ria for various diseases and conditions with the ments, but also used more resources [43, 44]. But pathologists still There is a suggestion that the quality of care by have to update themselves and their systems in specialists exceeded care by generalist for the use of these diagnostic criteria. While this type of behavior frequently is generational and cultural, it is A number of external pressures focus the need to frequently encouraged or accentuated by the have time constraints in surgical pathology. While this is often Regulatory mandates, while not strict, are often unintentional, the pathologist’s mood and response cited as a main reason to have good turnaround to a simple event such as technologist bringing in time. However, pressure from clinical colleagues additional tray of slides on a busy day may be suf- and an inherent need to please our customers fcient to initiate a technologist’s avoidance behav- (patients and clinicians) have greater infuence on ior. It takes only a few similar episodes for a our desire to produce a diagnostic result in the technologist to decide that avoidance is the best least amount of time possible. So when the total turnaround time is usually not the problems occur that may be addressed quickly as real issue leading to errors, the problem is in they occur, the choice is made to avoid communi- batch work and time constraints. To alleviate this ronment work would be evenly spaced and main- situation the pathologist or others in a position of tained at regular intervals with suffcient time to authority have to remove that element of fear and accomplish each task. Surgical pathology is prone discomfort that comes with bringing forth prob- to batch work and time constraints; specimens lems. This way, problems are managed in real are typically delivered in batches and are acces- time and are not allowed to fester. After dissection and placement in cassettes, the tissue typically must be placed onto processors that begin at a References certain point in time thus providing time con- straints.

Since the mid-1950s purchase cheap cetirizine on line allergy under eyelid, over 33 million women have used the combination drug of pyridoxine/doxylamine in pregnancy cheap cetirizine 10 mg without a prescription allergy treatment for foods, and scientific analysis on more than 200 buy cetirizine 5mg with amex allergy symptoms after running,000 exposed pregnancies has been conducted to determine if the combination of pyridoxine and doxylamine is [8][9] [9] harmful to the unborn baby. Two separate meta-analyses have been conducted that have assessed pregnancy outcomes following the use of a combination of pyridoxine and doxylamine with or without dicyclomine during [10][11] the first trimester of pregnancy. The initial meta-analysis, published in 1988, combined data [10] from 12 cohort and 5 case-control studies, and the subsequent meta-analysis, published in 1994, [11] combined data from 16 cohort studies and 11 case control studies. These studies included over 200,000 Bendectin-exposed pregnancies and did not observe an increased risk for major [10][11] malformations. Separate analyses were conducted for specific defects including cardiac defects, limb reduction defects, oral clefts, and genital tract malformations; no increased risks for [11] these defects were found. These scientific experts concluded that “numerous studies in animals and in humans that have been reported in the scientific and medical literature demonstrate that Bendectin is not a teratogen…The safety of Bendectin/Diclectin in the management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy has been established [12] by its use in many thousands of pregnant women”. A study was conducted to determine whether the combination drug of pyridoxine and doxylamine had an effect on the neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero. Results from this study observed no difference in intelligence quotient scores between children who were exposed to [13] pyridoxine/doxylamine in utero and children who were not exposed. Adverse effects [14][15] Pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin and is generally recognized as having no adverse effects [15] the most commonly reported side effect of doxylamine is drowsiness. Other adverse drug reactions associated with doxylamine succinate may include: vertigo, nervousness, epigastric pain, headache, palpitation, diarrhea, disorientation, irritability, convulsions, urinary retention or [15] insomnia. Caution should be used when combining doxylamine with other anti-cholinergic or anti- [15] histamine drugs. The third one, dicyclomine, a Pregnancy Category B antispasmodic, was omitted from the formulation starting in 1976 due to its lack of efficacy. In litigation, Bendectin was supposed to cause all kinds of fetal malformations and problems including limb and other musculoskeletal deformities, facial and brain damage, defects of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and [16] genital-urinary systems, blood disorders and cancer. The star witness for the case against Bendectin, William McBride, was later found to have falsified research on teratogenic effects of the drug, and was struck off the medical [18][19] register in Australia. An extensive review of the evidence submitted in legal proceedings regarding Bendectin has been [20] summarized and found no evidence that the drug in clinical use was linked to birth defects. The Canadian based manufacturer has made a generic version, Diclectin, for many years. Firstly, there was an immediate increase in the rates of hospitalization [22] for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The lack of availability of a safe and effective drug for the treatment of nauseas and vomiting of pregnancy has resulted in the use of other, less [26][27][28] studied drugs in pregnancy. Thirdly, it has been claimed that subsequent to the Bendectin [29] experience drug companies stayed away from developing medications for pregnant patients. Lastly, the perception that all medications are teratogenic increased [30] among pregnant women and healthcare professionals. The unfounded fear of using medications during pregnancy has orphaned many women from receiving the appropriate treatment they [30] require. Leaving medical conditions untreated during pregnancy can result in adverse pregnancy [30] outcomes or significant morbidity for both the mother and baby. Ongoing education of physicians and the general public has resulted in improvements in the perception of medication use in pregnancy; however, further advances are required to overcome the devastating effects of the [31][32] Bendectin saga. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk, 8th edition. Effectiveness of delayed-release doxylamine and pyridoxine for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized placebo controlled trial. A Report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Thalidomide hero found guilty of scientific fraud — Article published in "New Scientist" on 27 February 1991 19. Thalidomide doctor guilty of medical fraud — Article published in "The Independent" on 20 February 1993 20. Medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Factors associated with elective termination of pregnancy among Canadian and American women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Bendectin: review of the medical literature of a comprehensively studied human nonteratogen and the most prevalent tortogen-litigen. Medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Medication use during pregnancy, with particular focus on prescription drugs: 1976-2008. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval: Slow Advances in Obstetric Care in the United States". The teratogenicity of drugs for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: perceived versus true risk. Medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Supreme Court of the United States Argued March 30, 1993 Decided June 28, 1993 Full case name William Daubert, et ux. They require the trial judge to act as a gatekeeper before admitting the evidence, determining that the evidence is scientifically valid and relevant to the case at hand. Court membership Chief Justice William Rehnquist Associate Justices Byron White · Harry Blackmun John P. The Daubert Court held that the enactment of the Federal Rules of Evidence implicitly overturned the Frye standard; the standard that the Court articulated is referred to as the Daubert standard. Merrell Dow removed the case to federal court, and then moved for summary judgment because their expert submitted documents showing that no published scientific study demonstrated a link between Bendectin and birth defects. Daubert and Schuller submitted expert evidence of their own that suggested that Bendectin could cause birth defects. The district court granted summary judgment for Merrell Dow, and Daubert and Schuller appealed to the Ninth Circuit. Without their proffered evidence, the Ninth Circuit doubted that the plaintiffs could prove at a trial that the Bendectin had, in fact, caused the birth defects about which they were complaining. Circuit held that evidence could be admitted in court only if "the thing from which the deduction is made" is "sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs. In 1923, this blood pressure test was not widely accepted among scientists, and so the Frye court ruled it could not be used in court. Over the years, scholars disputed the proper scope and application of the Frye test. The plaintiffs successfully argued that after Congress adopted the Federal Rules of Evidence in 1975, Frye was no longer the governing standard for admitting scientific evidence in trials held in federal court.

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