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Movement disorders have also been described cheap 120 mg isoptin visa pulse pressure transducer, such as transient dystonias order isoptin 40mg amex quercetin high blood pressure medication, torticollis 240mg isoptin amex blood pressure levels women, and parkinsonism . Delayed ophthalmologic and otologic consequences include cataracts, conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and vertigo [22,23]. Delayed autonomic dysfunction may manifest as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, presenting as a limb with burning pain, cutaneous vasoconstriction, swelling, and sweating . Prolonged and permanent spinal cord abnormalities may become manifest in the delayed development of a myelopathy or a motor neuronopathy [14,25]. Peripheral neuropathies may result from compression due to scarring and fibrosis from the original injury or delayed ischemia due to vascular occlusion . Peripheral neuropathies are more likely to occur in areas directly involved by the electrical current, but may also occur in limbs that were not seemingly in the current path . Contrary to conventional mythology, lightning-strike victims are not electrically charged and may be examined immediately. Cardiac arrhythmias and asystole commonly accompany these injuries, as does respiratory arrest due to passage of current through the brainstem respiratory centers. Stabilization of the spine is also essential, owing to potential spinal cord injuries and fractures from falls. Neurologic Examination the neurologic examination should begin with assessment of the level of consciousness. Initially, many patients are comatose, but this is often brief and followed by a period of confusion and amnesia, lasting hours to days . The cranial nerve examination may reveal fixed and dilated pupils; blindness; papilledema; partial hearing loss; and tinnitus. Evaluation of the motor system for focal weakness and reflex changes may indicate cerebral injuries, myelopathy, or neuropathy. Peripheral nerve injuries in the immediate assessment are typically located in areas of extensive burns. Laboratory Evaluation Laboratory evaluations should be focused on the known complications of electrical and lightning injuries. Serial determinations of electrolytes, renal function, and hematocrit are essential for assessing adequate fluid replacement. Radiologic examinations of the long bones, spine, and skull are indicated when fractures or deep burns are suspected based on the history and physical examination. Cranial imaging is indicated when there is prolonged alteration of consciousness and may reveal intracranial hemorrhages, cerebral edema, or the effect of diffuse cerebral hypoxia. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography may be useful in localizing and following axonal and demyelinating electrical injuries to the peripheral nerves and plexi, although they are not generally used in the acute evaluation. Efforts should focus on circulatory volume, hydration status, renal function, acidosis, and electrolyte balance. Because high-voltage electric shock victims usually have myoglobinuria secondary to burns and deep tissue injury, their fluid needs are similar to those of crush injuries. Ultrasongraphic assessment of volume status can be helpful and urine output should be maintained at greater than 0. Alkalinization of the urine and osmotic diuresis with mannitol also help to prevent myoglobin nephropathy. Extensive burns due to direct current or clothing ignition are best treated in specialized burn units. Debridement of necrotic muscle and fasciotomy are sometimes necessary to prevent secondary ischemia from a compartment syndrome. Recurrent seizures are treated with phenytoin (18 to 20 mg per kg loading dose followed by 5 to 7 mg/kg/d). Because fluid restriction is contraindicated, patients with signs of increased intracranial pressure require osmotic diuresis with mannitol. Specific treatment for electrical spinal cord injuries is not available, and early institution of physical therapy is recommended. Patients with deficits at presentation might potentially recover fully, whereas those with delayed onset of neurologic deficits may have syndromes that progress over months to years. Carbon monoxide is a byproduct of incomplete combustion and as such is found in automobile exhaust, fires, water heaters, charcoal-burning grills, methylene chloride, volcanic gas, and cigarette smoke. It is also endogenously formed from the degradation of hemoglobin, resulting in baseline carboxyhemoglobin saturation between 1% and 3% . For further information on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning, see Chapter 178. Of note, the carboxyhemoglobin levels are not indicative of the severity of toxicity and depend on factors such as duration of exposure, comorbid conditions, and ambient carbon monoxide concentration . With mild intoxication, symptoms may include a mild headache; dyspnea on exertion; and fatigability . With increasing levels of toxicity, more severe symptoms may include impaired motor dexterity; blurry vision; irritability; weakness; nausea; vomiting; and confusion . At its most severe, carbon monoxide exposure may cause tachycardia; cardiac irritability; seizures; respiratory insufficiency; coma; and death . In addition, there can be evidence of rhabdomyolysis, flame-shaped superficial retinal hemorrhages, and, occasionally, a cherry-red discoloration best appreciated in the lips, mucous membranes, and skin [29,31,32]. For mild carbon monoxide intoxication, in which there is no loss of consciousness and carboxyhemoglobin levels are less than 5% in nonsmokers or less than 10% in smokers, only headache and dizziness around the time of presentation were found to correlate with an increased incidence of delayed sequelae, including asthenia, headache, or decreased memory . The electroencephalogram usually demonstrates diffuse slowing but is generally of little prognostic value. Treatment the criteria for hospital admission include coma, loss of consciousness, or neurologic deficit at any time; any clinical or electrocardiographic signs of cardiac compromise; metabolic acidosis; abnormal chest radiograph; oxygen tension less than 60 mm Hg; and carboxyhemoglobin level greater than 10% in individuals with pregnancy, greater than 15% in those with cardiac disease, or greater than 25% in all other patients . All patients should be treated with 100% oxygen as soon as the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is even considered. It should be administered through a tight-fitting nonrebreathing mask or after endotracheal intubation of severely sensorium-compromised patients. The administration of 100% oxygen can shorten the half-life of carbon monoxide from 4 to 5 hours to approximately 1 hour . Course the delayed appearance of neurologic sequelae found in many posthypoxic states occurs with particular frequency and severity after carbon monoxide poisoning. Up to 30% of patients may succumb to the initial exposure and 25% may develop a progressive encephalopathy resulting in a persistent vegetative state, with a 50% mortality rate . Later sequelae may include seizures, cortical blindness, scotomas, Korsakoff’s psychosis, irritability, hemiplegia, chorea, and peripheral neuropathy. Between 10% and 30% of patients develop delayed neurologic sequelae, and there are no guidelines to indicate which patients are at greatest risk . Although there seems to be a rough correlation between both duration of initial unconsciousness and increasing age with the development of delayed neurologic sequelae, even patients with mild toxicity can progress to develop the tardive signs . Recently, some work has looked at markers in the blood to predict neurologic damange including neuron-specific enolase and S100B with some success . The post–carbon monoxide syndrome begins 7 to 30 days after the initial insult and is characterized by gait disturbances, incontinence, and memory impairment, as well as signs of parkinsonism, mutism, and frontal lobe disinhibition [29,30,38]. Some report memory dysfunction, impaired attention, and affective disorders in moderate to severe carbon monoxide exposure, whereas other studies suggest that mildly exposed individuals have no cognitive impairments compared to matched controls in neuropsychiatric testing [30,39,40].
Gabapentin exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics (see Chapter 1) due to its uptake by a saturable transport system from the gut buy 120mg isoptin pulse pressure sites. Gabapentin does not bind to plasma proteins and is excreted unchanged through the kidneys buy 120 mg isoptin overnight delivery arrhythmia 1. Gabapentin is well tolerated by the elderly population with focal seizures due to its relatively mild adverse effects trusted isoptin 120mg heart attack age. It may also be a good choice for the older patient because there are few drug interactions. The most common adverse events that limit treatment include dizziness, headache, and fatigue. Lamotrigine is effective in a wide variety of seizure types, including focal, generalized, absence seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. As with other antiseizure medications, general inducers increase lamotrigine clearance leading to lower lamotrigine concentrations, whereas divalproex results in a significant decrease in lamotrigine clearance (higher lamotrigine concentrations). Slow titration is necessary with lamotrigine (particularly when adding lamotrigine to a regimen that includes valproate) due to risk of rash, which may progress to a serious, life-threatening reaction. The drug is well absorbed after oral administration and is excreted in urine mostly unchanged, resulting in few to no drug interactions. Levetiracetam can cause mood alterations that may require a dose reduction or a change of medication. It is approved for adjunctive treatment of focal and generalized tonic–clonic seizures. This medication has a warning for serious psychiatric and behavioral reactions including aggression, hostility, irritability, anger, and homicidal ideation. Primidone is metabolized to phenobarbital (major) and phenylethylmalonamide, both with anticonvulsant activity. Phenobarbital is used primarily in the treatment of status epilepticus when other agents fail. It is effective for treatment of focal and generalized tonic–clonic seizures and in the treatment of status epilepticus. Phenytoin exhibits saturable enzyme metabolism resulting in nonlinear pharmacokinetic properties (small increases in the daily dose can produce large increases in plasma concentration, resulting in drug-induced toxicity; ure 12. Long-term use may lead to development of peripheral neuropathies and osteoporosis. Although phenytoin is advantageous due to its low cost, the actual cost of therapy may be higher, considering the potential for serious toxicity and adverse effects. The drug has proven effects on focal-onset seizures, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and fibromyalgia. It is approved for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in children one year of age and older and in adults. Carbamazepine and phenytoin can reduce and valproate can increase the serum concentrations of rufinamide. In postmarketing surveillance, seizures have occurred in patients using tiagabine who did not have epilepsy. Renal stones, glaucoma, oligohidrosis (decreased sweating), and hyperthermia have also been reported. All of the available salt forms are equivalent in efficacy (valproic acid and sodium valproate). Commercial products are available in multiple-salt dosage forms and extended-release formulations. Therefore, the risk for medication errors is high, and it is essential to be familiar with all preparations. Rare hepatotoxicity may cause a rise in liver enzymes, which should be monitored frequently. Vigabatrin is associated with visual field loss ranging from mild to severe in 30% or more of patients. The compound has multiple effects, including blockade of both voltage-gated sodium channels and T-type calcium currents. Oligohidrosis has been reported, and patients should be monitored for increased body temperature and decreased sweating. Zonisamide is contraindicated in patients with sulfonamide or carbonic anhydrase inhibitor hypersensitivity. Status Epilepticus In status epilepticus, two or more seizures occur without recovery of full consciousness in between episodes. Status epilepticus is life threatening and requires emergency treatment usually consisting of parenteral administration of a fast-acting medication such as a benzodiazepine, followed by a slower- acting medication such as phenytoin, fosphenytoin, divalproex, or levetiracetam. Women’s Health and Epilepsy Women of childbearing potential with epilepsy require assessment of their antiseizure medications in regard to contraception and pregnancy planning. Several antiseizure medications increase the metabolism of hormonal contraceptives, potentially rendering them ineffective. These include phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, topiramate, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, and clobazam. These medications increase the metabolism of contraceptives regardless of the delivery system used (for example, patch, ring, implants, and oral tablets). Pregnancy planning is vital, as many antiseizure medications have the potential to affect fetal development and cause birth defects. All women considering pregnancy should be on high doses (1 to 5 mg) of folic acid prior to conception. If possible, women already taking divalproex should be placed on other therapies before pregnancy and counseled about the potential for birth defects, including cognitive (ure 12. The pharmacokinetics of antiseizure medications and the frequency and severity of seizures may change during pregnancy. All women with epilepsy should be encouraged to register with the Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. Over the past year, the child has experienced episodes during which he develops a blank look on his face and his eyes blink for 15 seconds. The patient is experiencing episodes of absence seizures where consciousness is impaired briefly. Diagnosis includes obtaining an electroencephalogram that shows generalized 3-Hz waves. The patient has had many seizures that interrupt his ability to pay attention during school and activities, so therapy is justified. Of the drugs listed, lamotrigine has the best data for use in absence seizures and is the best choice. With respect to her antiseizure medication, which of the following should be considered? Valproate is a poor choice in women of childbearing age and should be avoided if possible. If she has not tried any other antiseizure medication, then consideration of another antiseizure medication may be beneficial. Studies show that valproate taken during pregnancy can have a detrimental effect on cognitive abilities in children.
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