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Referral Patient with additional neurological signs or additional risk factors for an alternate diagnosis buy discount betapace online arrhythmia sinus bradycardia, such as immune deficiency buy betapace 40mg low price hypertension jnc 8 ppt. These patients require brain imaging Sudden onset of a first severe headache may indicate serious organic pathology discount betapace uk heart attack album, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage Acute migraine, not responding to treatment Recurrent migraine not controlled with prophylactic therapy Tension headaches While tension headaches are the most frequently occurring type of headache, the cause is most likely contraction of the muscles that cover the skull. Common sites include the base of the skull, the 4 | P a g e temple and the forehead. Tension headaches occur because of physical or emotional stress placed on the body. Diagnosis The pain begins in the back of the head and upper neck and is described as a band-like tightness or pressure. Note: The key to making the diagnosis of any headache is the history given by the patient If the health care practitioner finds an abnormality, then the diagnosis of tension headache would not be considered until the potential for other types of headaches have been investigated. Treatment Tension headaches are painful, and patients may be upset that the diagnosis is "only" a tension headache. Even though it is not life-threatening, a tension headache can affect the activities of daily life. Thus, the headache becomes a symptom of the withdrawal of medication (rebound headache). Cluster headaches Cluster headaches are headaches that come in groups (clusters) lasting weeks or months, separated by pain-free periods of months or years. Some evidence shows that brain scans performed on patients who are in the midst of a cluster headache, shows abnormal activity in the hypothalamus. Cluster headaches: May tend to run in families and this suggests that there may be a genetic role May be triggered by changes in sleep patterns May be triggered by medications (for example, nitroglycerin) 5 | P a g e If an individual is in a susceptible period for cluster headache, cigarette smoking, alcohol, and some foods (for example, chocolate) also can be potential causes for headache. Diagnosis Pain typically occurs once or twice daily and last for 30 to 90 minutes Attacks tend to occur at about the same time every day The pain typically is excruciating and located around or behind one eye. The affected eye may become red, inflamed, and watery Note: Cluster headaches are much more common in men than women. Stopping smoking and minimizing alcohol may prevent future episodes of cluster headache. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential if damage is to be limited Examples of Secondary headache: Head and neck trauma Blood vessel problems in the head and neck 1. Temporal arteritis (inflammation of the temporal artery) Non-blood vessel problems of the brain 6 | P a g e 1. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, once named pseudo tumor cerebri, Medications and drugs (including withdrawal from those drugs) Infection 1. Systemic infections Diagnosis If there is time, the diagnosis of secondary headache begins with a complete patient history followed by a physical examination and laboratory and radiology tests as appropriate However, some patients present in crisis with a decreased level of consciousness or unstable vital signs. In these situations, the health care practitioner may decide to treat a specific cause without waiting for tests to confirm the diagnosis 3. Infections are the most common cause of fevers, however as the temperature rises other causes become more general. Note: Hyperpyrexia is considered a medical emergency as it may indicate a serious underlying conditions. Where causative/precipitating factors cannot be detected, the following treatments may be offered: For Non-productive irritating cough A: Cough syrup/Linctus (O) 5-10 ml every 6 hours Expectorants may be used to liquefy viscid secretions. A: Cough expectorants (O) 5-10 ml every 6 hours Note: Antibiotics should never be used routinely in the treatment of cough 5. Some investigations must be ordered: Serum glucose level Serum electrolyte Pregnancy test for women of child bearing age. Therefore, the following are primarily assessed in children: Prolonged capillary filling (more than 3 seconds) Decreased pulse volume (weak thread pulse) Increased heart rate (>160/minute in infants, > 120 in children) Decreased level of consciousness (poor eye contact) Rapid breathing Decreased blood pressure and decreased urine output are late signs and while they can be monitored the above signs are more sensitive in detecting shock before irreversible. Table 2: Types of Shock Type of Shock Explanation Additional symptoms Hypovolemic Most common type of shock Weak thread pulse, cold Primary cause is loss of fluid from circulation due and clammy skin. Cardiogenic Caused by the failure of heart to pump Distended neck veins, shock effectively e. Septic shock Caused by an overwhelming infection, leading to Elevated body vasodilatation. Anaphylactic Caused by severe allergic reaction to an allergen, Bronchospasm, shock or drug. Intravenous fluid therapy is important in the treatment of all types of shock except for cardiogenic shock. Ringer-lactate, within 48 hours of administering ceftriaxone Contra-indicated in neonatal jaundice Annotate dose and route of administration on referral letter. There are three types of dehydration: hypotonic or hyponatremic (primarily a loss of electrolytes, sodium in particular), hypertonic or hypernatremic (primarily a loss of water), and isotonic or isonatremic (equal loss of water and electrolytes). In humans, the most commonly seen type of dehydration by far is isotonic (isonatraemic) dehydration which effectively equates with Hypovolemic, but the distinction of isotonic from hypotonic or hypertonic dehydration may be important when treating people who become dehydrated. Physiologically, dehydration, despite the name, does not simply mean loss of water, as water and solutes (mainly sodium) are usually lost in roughly equal quantities to how they exist in blood plasma. In hypotonic dehydration, intravascular water shifts to the extra vascular space, exaggerating intravascular volume depletion for a given amount of total body water loss. The former can lead to seizures, while the latter can lead to osmotic cerebral edema upon rapid rehydration. It defines water deficiency only in terms of volume rather than specifically water. Signs and symptoms Symptoms may include headaches similar to what is experienced during a hangover, a sudden episode of visual snow, and dizziness or fainting when standing up due to orthostatic hypotension. Untreated dehydration generally results in delirium, unconsciousness, swelling of the tongue and, in extreme cases, death. In the presence of normal renal function dehydration is associated usually with a urine output of less than 0. Differential diagnosis 12 | P a g e In humans, dehydration can be caused by a wide range of diseases and states that impair water homeostasis in the body. These include: External or stress-related causes o Prolonged physical activity with sweating without consuming adequate water, especially in a hot and/or dry environment o Prolonged exposure to dry air, e. Treatment For some dehydration oral fluid is the most effective to replenish fluid deficit. For severe cases of dehydration where fainting, unconsciousness, or other severely inhibiting symptom is present (the patient is incapable of standing or thinking clearly), emergency attention is required. Fluids containing a proper balance of replacement electrolytes are given intravenously with continuing assessment of electrolyte status. Reversal or improvement of symptoms or problems when the glucose is restored to normal Symptoms of hypoglycemia usually do not occur until the blood sugar is in the level of 2. The precise level of glucose considered low enough to define hypoglycemia is dependent on (1) the measurement method, (2) the age of the person, (3) presence or absence of effects, and (4) the purpose of the definition. Signs and symptoms Hypoglycemic symptoms and manifestations can be divided into those produced by the counter regulatory hormones (epinephrine/adrenaline and glucagon) triggered by the falling glucose, and the neuroglycopenic effects produced by the reduced brain sugar. Adrenergic manifestations Shakiness, anxiety, nervousness Palpitations, tachycardia Sweating, feeling of warmth (although sweat glands have muscarinic receptors, thus "adrenergic manifestations" is not entirely accurate) Pallor, coldness, clamminess Dilated pupils (mydriasis) 14 | P a g e Feeling of numbness "pins and needles" (paresthesia) Glucagon manifestations Hunger, borborygmus Nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort Headache Neuroglycopenic manifestations Abnormal mentation, impaired judgment Personality change, emotional liability Fatigue, weakness, apathy, lethargy, daydreaming, sleep Confusion, amnesia, dizziness, delirium Stupor, coma, abnormal breathing Generalized or focal seizures Causes The circumstances of hypoglycemia provide most of the clues to diagnosis.
In the developing world cheap betapace 40 mg on-line hypertension nursing interventions, avoiding breastfeeding has proved noto be a viable option in all settings due to increased infanmortality when access to formula milk or clean war is problematic purchase betapace with paypal arrhythmia low blood pressure. Although elective caesareans are the preferable mode of delivery for avoiding transmission purchase betapace master card arrhythmia, emergency caesareans and vaginal deliveries are noalways avoidable. A clear association between the level of the plasma viral load and the risk of onwards transmission has been identified (5). For each area of inrest, a compurised lirature search was performed using the Web of Knowledge. The search stragy and key rms used for each area to identify the relevanlirature can be found in Appendix 1. Once the pontial papers for a section were identified from the lirature search, the titles and abstracts of each paper were reviewed by one person (a differenperson for each of the three research areas). On the basis of this full review, relevanpapers to be included were identified and included in the formal lirature reviews. In addition to the manuscripts identified by the Web of Knowledge search, other pontially relevanstudies were identified more informally by reviewing the references of publications already included in the lirature review and in the treatmenguidelines. Detailed information on the search rms used for each section is provided in Figure 1, subsections 2. The papers identified by these lirature searches are summarised in the tables in Appendix 2. Of 20 additional studies considered, 9 references of relevance were added to the review presend in section 3. All calendar years were searched, up until the da the search took place (24th August, 2011). Of 1 894 studies initially identified (reduced to 1 808 afr removing duplicas), 214 were selecd as pontially relevanby reading the titles and abstract, and the full xwas read. In addition, hand searching for grey lirature was performed by checking the references included in major treatmenguidelines, major review articles, and other studies already included in the lirature review. Searches were limid to studies published in English, from January 1987 to Sepmber 2011, and excluded studies on children (< 13 years old). Five hundred and twelve papers were identified of which the majority were discarded afr reading the titles and the abstracts because they did nomeethe inclusion criria which were transmission outcomes afr use of appropria antiretroviral therapy as posxposure prophylaxis in animal or human studies. Guidelines are therefore assembled, consisting of evidence-based recommendations, to assispracticing clinicians and healthcare workers so thathe besmanagemenand care can be provided for their patients. They are also a valuable source of information for patiengroup organisations, charities, public health boards, local authorities and policymakers. Whilsseveral countries have their own guidelines, many are also thoughto follow these inrnational guidelines in conjunction. This guideline has been updad every two years in recenyears and their mosrecenpublication is their 2010 version (38). Since the 2004 guidelines (39), the panel has been using a rating scale for the quality and strength of evidence for each recommendation. The choice to consider predominantly the global guidelines in this review was based on the facthese were updad more recently, whereas the European guidelines have nobeen revised since 2007 (although some revisions to the 2007 guidelines were made in mid-2008). In addition, ican be debad whether such a stragy should be implemend due to ethical difficulties and whether iis the moscosffective stragy. Evidence from developing as well as developed countries is considered, although the ultima aim is to consider the implications in the European conxt. This includes evidence from observational studies, randomised controlled trials and mathematical models. The evidence with regard to the effectiveness of treatmenas prevention from each type of study is summarised below and the key papers identified are summarised in Appendix 2. This relationship has been more accuraly described in a study conducd in Southern and EasAfrica (59). The authors concluded thathe data were compatible with one transmission per 79 person-years in this group. Few papers estima the risk of transmission in longitudinal observational studies (18;19;74). Other proposed explanations include competing exposures through other rous of transmission norepord, such as intravenous drug use, and unrepresentativeness of study participants� partners of the wider Australian homosexual population (73). Inrestingly, during the same period there was an increase in the number of repord cases of rectal gonorrhoea. Although data on sexual risk behaviour were nocollecd, data on ras of rectal gonorrhoea were used as a surroga marker for sexual risk behaviour. Firstly, there is the possibility of ecological fallacy, whereby inferences abouspecific individuals are based solely upon aggrega statistics collecd for the group to which those individuals belong, in which case the generalisability of the results is limid. Secondly, as with all observational studies iis difficulto rule ouconfounding which means thastablishing causality can be problematic. Thirdly, the studies were restricd to measuring numbers of new diagnoses rather than the main aspecof inrest; incidence of new infections. Three months afr baseline, 89% of participants in the early therapy group had achieved viral suppression (<400 copies/mL) compared with 9% of the delayed therapy group. A total of 28 virologically linked transmissions were observed; of these 28 transmissions, only one was in the early therapy group. By assuming thaach couple had 100 acts of sexual inrcourse per year they calculad the cumulative probability of transmission to the sero-discordanpartner each year. Therefore, they underlined the pontial danger thathe claim of non-infectiousness in effectively tread patients could cause if widely accepd, and condom use subsequently reduced. The authors used a model in which paramer values were based upon an epidemic in a sub-Saharan African nation (83). The authors argued thaven modesreductions in risk behaviours, expanded screening and treatmenwould produce substantial health benefits. Iwas found thaincreasing sting ras alone would yield only marginal reductions in the expecd number of new infections when compared to the currensituation. Iwas predicd thathis reduction could reach almos70% if all undiagnosed individuals were sd twice a year. The total number of infections for the tread cohorbegan to exceed the number of infections for the untread cohora33 years since infection. As with all research methods, mathematical modelling studies are subjecto limitations. As mentioned above, the findings from several mathematical studies are inconsisnt. The validity of conclusions drawn from models depends upon the reliability and compleness of the assumptions, on which the model paramers are based upon. Therefore, the findings from mathematical modelling studies should be inrpred with this caveain mind. This may nobe true for herosexual couples and the receptive partner in a homosexual couple. This is likely due to the high viral loads observed in the earliesand lasperiod (126�128). The data on the primary and asymptomatic phase were based on a small number of sero-discordanincidence couples (n=23), where individuals were sd every n months. Therefore the da of sero-conversion and death were assumed halfway through the inrval.
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Renewal — (Prader-Willi syndrome) only from a paediatric endocrinologist or endocrinologist order betapace 40mg without a prescription blood pressure yahoo. Initial application — (adults and adolescents) only from a paediatric endocrinologist or endocrinologist discount betapace 40mg on-line blood pressure chart app. Approvals valid for 9 months for applications meeting the following criteria: All of the following: 1 The patient has a medical condition that is known to cause growth hormone deficiency (e order betapace australia prehypertension 2013. Patients with one or more additional anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies and a known structural pituitary lesion only require one test. Where an additional test is required, an arginine provocation test can be used with a peak serum growth hormone level of less than or equal to 0. At the commencement of treatment for hypopituitarism, patients must be monitored for any required adjustment in replacement doses of corticosteroid and levothyroxine. Renewal — (adults and adolescents) only from a paediatric endocrinologist or endocrinologist. Approvals valid for 12 months for applications meeting the following criteria: All of the following: 1 The patient has primary nocturnal enuresis; and 2 The nasal forms of desmopressin are contraindicated; and 3 An enuresis alarm is contraindicated. Initial application — (Desmopressin tablets for Diabetes insipidus) from any relevant practitioner. Approvals valid for 12 months for applications meeting the following criteria: Both: 1 The patient has cranial diabetes insipidus; and 2 The nasal forms of desmopressin are contraindicated. Approvals valid for 12 months where the treatment remains appropriate and the patient is benefiting from the treatment. Approvals valid for 2 years where the patient cannot use desmopressin nasal spray or nasal drops. Approvals valid without further renewal unless notified for applications meeting the following criteria: Either: 1 pathological hyperprolactinemia; or 2 acromegaly*. Approvals valid without further renewal unless notified where the patient has previously held a valid Special Authority which has expired and the treatment remains appropriate and the patient is benefiting from treatment. Approvals valid for 6 months where the treatment remains appropriate and the patient is benefitting from the treatment. Approvals valid without further renewal unless notified for applications meeting the following criteria: Any of the following: 1 Patient has received a lung transplant, stem cell transplant, or bone marrow transplant and requires treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome*; or 2 Patient has received a lung transplant and requires prophylaxis for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome*; or 3 Patient has cystic fibrosis and has chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Pseudomonas-related gram negative organisms*; or 4 Patient has an atypical Mycobacterium infection. Initial application — (non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis*) only from a respiratory specialist or paediatrician. Approvals valid for 12 months for applications meeting the following criteria: All of the following: 1 For prophylaxis of exacerbations of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis*; and 2 Patient is aged 18 and under; and 3 Either: 3. Renewal — (non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis*) only from a respiratory specialist or paediatrician. A maximum of 24 months of azithromycin treatment for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis will be subsidised. Approvals valid for 2 years for applications meeting the following criteria: Either: 1 Atypical mycobacterial infection; or 2 Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection where there is drug-resistance or intolerance to standard pharmaceutical agents. Renewal — (Mycobacterial infections) only from a respiratory specialist, infectious disease specialist or paediatrician. Approvals valid without further renewal unless notified where the patient has rosacea. Approvals valid for 3 months for applications meeting the following criteria: Both: 1 For the eradication of helicobacter pylori following unsuccessful treatment with appropriate first-line therapy; and 2 For use only in combination with bismuth as part of a quadruple therapy regimen. Approvals valid for 1 year for applications meeting the following criteria: Either: 1 Both: 1. Approvals valid for 1 month where the patient requires prophylaxis following a penetrating eye injury and treatment is for 5 days only. Renewal only from an infectious disease specialist, clinical microbiologist or gastroenterologist. Approvals valid for 1 month for applications meeting the following criteria: Either: 1 Patient has confirmed cryptosporidium infection; or 2 For the eradication of Entamoeba histolyica carriage. Approvals valid for 6 weeks for applications meeting the following criteria: Both: 1 Patient requires prophylaxis for, or treatment of systemic candidiasis; and 2 Patient is unable to swallow capsules. Approvals valid for 6 months for applications meeting the following criteria: All of the following: 1 Patient is immunocompromised; and 2 Patient is at moderate to high risk of invasive fungal infection; and 3 Patient is unable to swallow capsules. Approvals valid for 6 months for applications meeting the following criteria: All of the following: 1 Patient remains immunocompromised; and 2 Patient remains at moderate to high risk of invasive fungal infection; and 3 Patient is unable to swallow capsules. Can be waived by endorsement - Retail pharmacy - Specialist Specialist must be an infectious disease physician, clinical microbiologist, clinical immunologist or dermatologist. Approvals valid for 6 months where the patient has a congenital immune deficiency. Approvals valid for 6 weeks for applications meeting the following criteria: Either: 1 Patient has acute myeloid leukaemia and is to be treated with high dose remission induction, re-induction or consolidation chemotherapy; or 2 Patient has received a stem cell transplant and has graft versus host disease and is on significant immunosuppressive therapy*. Approvals valid for 6 weeks for applications meeting the following criteria: Either: 1 Patient has acute myeloid leukaemia and is to be treated with high dose remission induction, re-induction or consolidation therapy; or 2 Patient has received a stem cell transplant and has graft versus host disease and is on significant immunosuppression* and requires on going posaconazole treatment. Renewal — (invasive fungal infection) only from a haematologist, infectious disease specialist or clinical microbiologist. Approvals valid for 3 months for applications meeting the following criteria: All of the following: 1 Patient is immunocompromised; and 2 Applicant is part of a multidisciplinary team including an infectious disease specialist; and 3 Any of the following: 3. Approvals valid for 1 month for applications meeting the following criteria: Both: 1 The patient has vivax or ovale malaria; and 2 Primaquine is to be given for a maximum of 21 days. Approvals valid for 1 month for applications meeting the following criteria: Both: 1 The patient has relapsed vivax or ovale malaria; and 2 Primaquine is to be given for a maximum of 21 days. Specialist must be an internal medicine physician, clinical microbiologist, dermatologist, paediatrician, or public health physician. Approvals valid for 2 years where in the opinion of the treating physician, treatment remains appropriate and patient is benefiting from treatment. In patients with renal insufficiency adefovir dipivoxil dose should be reduced in accordance with the datasheet guidelines. This period of consolidation therapy should be extended to 12 months in patients with advanced fibrosis (Metavir Stage F3 or F4). Approvals valid for 1 year where used for the treatment or prevention of hepatitis B. Approvals valid for 2 years where used for the treatment or prevention of hepatitis B. Renewal — (transplant cytomegalovirus prophylaxis) only from a relevant specialist. Initial application — (cytomegalovirus prophylaxis following anti-thymocyte globulin) only from a relevant specialist. Renewal — (cytomegalovirus prophylaxis following anti-thymocyte globulin) only from a relevant specialist. Initial application — (Lung transplant cytomegalovirus prophylaxis) only from a relevant specialist. Approvals valid for 6 months for applications meeting the following criteria: Both: 1 Patient has undergone a lung transplant; and 2 Either: 2.
To promote and support healthful eat- the tools to make informed self-management nized by the American Diabetes Associa- ing patterns purchase 40mg betapace with amex pulse pressure change during exercise, emphasizing a variety of decisions (4) betapace 40 mg without a prescription hypertension recommendations. To address individual nutrition needs Evidence for the Beneﬁts always be reimbursed order 40mg betapace with visa blood pressure norms. To maintain the pleasure of eating by coping (13,14), and reduced health care following a food plan. Individual and group development of an individualized eating Body weight management is important approaches are effective (11,24). All individuals with diabe- for overweight and obese people with ing evidence is pointing to the beneﬁtof tes should receive individualized medi- type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Patients who participate in about nutrition therapy principles for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes”). E Energy balance c Modest weight loss achievable by the combination of reduction of calorie intake and A lifestyle modiﬁcation beneﬁts overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes and also those with prediabetes. Eating patterns and macronutrient c As there is no single ideal dietary distribution of calories among carbohydrates, fats, E distribution and proteins for people with diabetes, macronutrient distribution should be individualized while keeping total calorie and metabolic goals in mind. Therefore, carbohydrate sources high in protein should not be used to treat or prevent hypoglycemia. A Micronutrients and herbal supplements c There is no clear evidence that dietary supplementation with vitamins, minerals, C herbs, or spices can improve outcomes in people with diabetes who do not have underlying deﬁciencies, and there may be safety concerns regarding the long-term use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamins E and C and carotene. Alcohol c Adults with diabetes who drink alcohol should do so in moderation (no more than C one drink per day for adult women and no more than two drinks per day for adult men). Education and awareness regarding the recognition and management of delayed hypoglycemia are warranted. Sodium c As for the general population, people with diabetes should limit sodium B consumption to ,2,300 mg/day, although further restriction may be indicated for those with both diabetes and hypertension. Nonnutritive sweeteners c The use of nonnutritive sweeteners has the potential to reduce overall calorie and B carbohydrate intake if substituted for caloric sweeteners and without compensation by intake of additional calories from other food sources. Nonnutritive sweeteners are generally safe to use within the deﬁned acceptable daily intake levels. S36 Lifestyle Management Diabetes Care Volume 40, Supplement 1, January 2017 5% of initial body weight, has been shown Individuals with type 1 or type 2 di- the recommended daily allowance of to improve glycemic control and to reduce abetes taking insulin at mealtimes 0. Reducing the need for glucose-lowering medications should be offered intensive education the amount of dietary protein below (51–53). Sustaining weight loss can be chal- on the need to couple insulin administra- the recommended daily allowance is lenging (54). For people not recommended because it does not with lifestyle programs that achieve a whose meal schedules or carbohydrate alter glycemic measures, cardiovascular 500–750 kcal/day energy deﬁcit or pro- consumption is variable, regular counsel- risk measures, or the rate at which glo- vide ;1,200–1,500 kcal/day for women ing to help them understand the com- merular ﬁltration rate declines (71,72). For many obese individuals with In addition, education regarding the response to dietary carbohydrates (73). Individuals who consume The ideal amount of dietary fat for indi- The diets used in intensive lifestyle meals containing more protein and viduals with diabetes is controversial. The management for weight loss may differ fat than usual may also need to make Institute of Medicine has deﬁnedanac- in the types of foods they restrict (e. The pattern with respect to both time and ized controlled trials including patients diet choice should be based on the patients’ amount (37). By contrast, a simpler di- with type 2 diabetes have reported that health status and preferences. However, supplements carbohydrate intake for people with dia- dysfunction, and those for whom there do not seem to have the same effects. A betes are inconclusive, although monitor- are concerns over health literacy and nu- systematic review concluded that dietary ing carbohydrate intake and considering meracy (37–39,41,59,65). The modiﬁed supplements with v-3 fatty acids did not the blood glucose response to dietary car- plate method (which uses measuring improve glycemic control in individuals bohydrate are key for improving post- cups to assist with portion measure- with type 2 diabetes (61). The ment) may be an effective alternative controlled trials also do not support rec- literature concerning glycemic index and to carbohydrate counting for some pa- ommending v-3 supplements for primary glycemic load in individuals with diabetes tients in improving glycemia (70). A daily level of protein ingestion (typically saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and systematic review (61) found that whole- 1–1. In general, trans fats should grain consumption was not associated total calories) will improve health in be avoided. Some may beneﬁt blood pressure in certain cir- diabetes should be encouraged to replace research has found successful manage- cumstances (88). However, other studies reﬁned carbohydrates and added sugars ment of type 2 diabetes with meal plans (89,90) have recommended caution for with whole grains, legumes, vegetables, including slightly higher levels of pro- universal sodium restriction to 1,500 mg and fruits. The consumption of sugar- tein (20–30%), which may contribute to in people with diabetes. Other beneﬁts include slowing per week, spread over at least of beneﬁt from herbal or nonherbal (i. Metformin is as- Exercise and Diabetes: A Position State- 75 min/week) of vigorous-intensity sociated with vitamin B12 deﬁciency, ment of the American Diabetes Asso- or interval training may be sufﬁ- with a recent report from the Diabetes ciation” reviews the evidence for the cient for younger and more physi- Prevention Program Outcomes Study beneﬁts of exercise in people with di- cally ﬁt individuals. Routine supple- c All adults, and particularly those couraged to engage in at least 60 min mentation with antioxidants, such as with type 2 diabetes, should de- of physical activity each day. Chil- vitamins E and C and carotene, is not ad- crease the amount of time spent dren should engage in at least 60 min vised because of lack of evidence of efﬁ- in daily sedentary behavior. B Pro- of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activ- cacy and concern related to long-term longed sitting should be interrup- ity every day with muscle- and bone- safety. In addition, there is insufﬁcient evi- ted every 30 min for blood glucose strengthening activities at least 3 days dence to support the routine use of herbals beneﬁts, particularly in adults with per week (102). C type 1 diabetes beneﬁt from being phys- and vitamin D (94), to improve glycemic c Flexibility training and balance ically active, and an active lifestyle control in people with diabetes (37,95). Alcohol times/week for older adults with Moderate alcohol consumption does diabetes. Yoga and tai chi may be Frequency and Type of Physical not have major detrimental effects on included based on individual pref- Activity long-termblood glucose control in people erences to increase ﬂexibility, The U. C man Services’ physical activity guide- hol consumption include hypoglycemia lines for Americans (103) suggest that (particularly for those using insulin or in- adults over age 18 years engage in Physical activity is a general term that sulin secretagogue therapies), weight 150 min/week of moderate-intensity includes all movement that increases gain, and hyperglycemia (for those con- or 75 min/week of vigorous-intensity energy use and is an important part of suming excessive amounts) (37,95). In addition, Nonnutritive Sweeteners is a more speciﬁc form of physical activity the guidelines suggest that adults do For people who are accustomed to sugar- that is structured and designed to im- muscle-strengthening activities that in- sweetened products, nonnutritive sweet- prove physical ﬁtness. Both physical activ- volve all major muscle groups 2 or more eners have the potential to reduce overall ity and exercise are important. The guidelines suggest that calorie and carbohydrate intake and may has beenshown to improve blood glucose adults over age 65 years and those with be preferred to sugar when consumed in control, reduce cardiovascular risk fac- disabilities follow the adult guidelines if moderation. Regulatory agencies set ac- tors, contribute to weight loss, and im- possible or, if not possible, be as physi- ceptable daily intake levels for each non- prove well-being. There are also considerable orous muscle-strengthening and risk and may also aid in glycemic control data for the health beneﬁts (e. C muscle strength, improved insulin sensi- Physical Activity and Glycemic c Most adults with with type 1 C and tivity, etc. Higher levels Clinical trials have provided strong evi- 150 min or more of moderate-to- of exercise intensity are associated with dence for the A1C-lowering value of S38 Lifestyle Management Diabetes Care Volume 40, Supplement 1, January 2017 resistance training in older adults with provider should customize the exercise neuropathy who use proper footwear type 2 diabetes (106) and for an additive regimen to the individual’s needs. In addition, 150 min/week of mod- beneﬁt of combined aerobic and resis- with complications may require a more erate exercise was reported to improve tance exercise in adults with type 2 diabe- thorough evaluation (98). All individuals with periph- with type 2 diabetes should be encour- Hypoglycemia eral neuropathy should wear proper aged to do at least two weekly sessions In individuals taking insulin and/or insu- footwear and examine their feet daily to of resistance exercise (exercise with free lin secretagogues, physical activity may detect lesions early.