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For example buy lipitor 5mg lowest price cholesterol lowering foods list mayo clinic, they can induce a sense of calmness purchase lipitor on line amex cholesterol medication without joint pain, increase energy generic 5 mg lipitor otc vap cholesterol test quest, enhance confidence or alter the way in which sensations are experienced. Some adolescents may turn to drugs or alcohol as an avoidant method of coping with life’s difficulties. They may choose alcohol or drug intoxication as a method ‘to switch off’ or ‘to make problems go away’. Regular use of drugs or alcohol will reduce the opportunity for the adolescent to learn alternative problem solving strategies. If their drug or alcohol use causes them to finish education early, their difficulties may be compounded, as they will miss out on the healthy social learning environment which school provides. This may further reduce their ability to acquire and develop the adaptive coping strategies and social problem solving styles that are necessary for healthy adult functioning in society. Adolescents who are slower to develop the complex social skills necessary to interact effectively with peers and the wider world are also more at risk of turning to drug or alcohol use. They may use alcohol or drugs to mask their anxiety in social situations or they may use these substances in an attempt to demonstrate their ‘maturity’ to peers. However, it would be wrong to assume 19 The Epidemiological Triangle of Drug Use that a ‘lack of confidence’ is a universal problem among teenagers who use drugs. Indeed, a personality profile that includes excessive confidence, sensation seeking and substantial risk taking is also associated with progression to drug misuse. Problematic drug or alcohol use therefore demonstrates a complex interaction with normal adolescent development. Conversely, drug and alcohol misuse can themselves cause a delay in, or a deviation from, normal adolescent development. As a drug or alcohol problem grows, the young person is likely to find himself or herself in a progressively more deviant environment, e. These environments promote a social inter- actional style that is likely to perpetuate a further delay in the acquisition of the skills appropriate to survival in ‘mainstream society’. These issues highlight the potentially massive damage which problematic drug use can inflict on a young person during this crucial stage of development. Young people’s attitudes and behaviours in relation to alcohol cannot be considered in isolation to how alcohol is used and m is-used in the adult world – the reality is that alcohol use and m isuse is part of the sam e continuum for both young and old. Our tolerance and am biguity towards alcohol is at variance with m any M editerranean countries where drunkenness is seen as a source of great sham e and em barrassm ent. However, in Ireland episodes of drunkenness, for adults and adolescents of both genders, are routinely recounted with pride. This is one particular facet of our alcohol culture which needs to be challenged through drugs education. Binge drinking and its consequences are not a necessary rite of passage which adolescents m ust go through to m ark their status as em erging adults, rather it is a feature of our social landscape. Changing this aspect of our drinking behaviour m eans challenging the attitudes in adults and young people as to its desirability. From a preventative perspective, the other issue to consider is both the ready availability of alcohol and the linked issue of the lack of social events and venues for adolescents where alcohol does not feature. W hilst it m ay be outside of the scope of schools to address these areas directly, they are issues the wider school com m unity (particularly parents) can engage in. The other issue to be considered from a context perspective is awareness of how adult alcohol use im pacts on children and young people. Am ong the approxim ate 600,000 people living in the South W estern Area Health Board region it is estim ated that: 20 The Epidemiological Triangle of Drug Use y 18,000 adults would identify themselves as having a problem with their alcohol use. Research shows that there is a com plex grid of m ultiple influences which relate to drug use and other problem behaviours, rather than sim plistic single ‘cause and effect’ m odels. Those influences which m ay increase the likelihood of drug use are referred to as risk factors and those which may reduce the likelihood of drug use are referred to as protective factors. It is important to note that models like this are not predictors of individual drug use. Just because a young person is surrounded by risk factors, it does not automatically follow that he or she will engage in any of the problem behaviours identified – rather it postulates that there is a higher risk of such behaviours. Web of Influence Domains Individual Risk and Protective Factors y Biological and Psychological Dispositions y Attitudes and Values y Knowledge and Skills y Problem Behaviours † Refers to the total complex of external social, cultural and economic conditions affecting a community or an individual. School/Work Risk and Protective Factors y Bonding y Climate y Policy y Performance 4. Community Risk and Protective Factors y Bonding y Norms y Resources y Awareness/Mobilisation 5. Society/Environment Related Risk and Protective Factors y External social, economic and cultural conditions y Norms y Policy/Sanctions For a more detailed discussion of risk and protective factors recommended reading would be Dr. Mark Morgan’s ‘Drug Use Prevention – An Overview of Research’ published by the National Advisory Committee on Drugs in 2001. As with the previous section, it is important to note that the following information is aimed at an adult audience in order to build their capacity to engage with young people in drugs education and prevention work in the school setting and, as such, is not a resource to be given out to students in an unmediated fashion. Engaging young people in discussion around drug facts should always be done in a way which is (i) developmentally appropriate (ii) in accordance with the curriculum being used (iii) in accordance with the school’s substance policy The information is organised around the following headings: y Name y Physical Description(s) y Administration y Desired Effects y Duration of Effects y Signs and Symptoms of Use y Short Term Risks y Long Terms Risks y Legal Status 25 Drug Facts All drugs are viewed in terms of both their desired effects and their associated short and long-term risks. This emphasis on risk, as opposed to distinctions between so called ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ drugs is because the risks involved in drug use are not located purely within the drug itself but rather, how the drug is used, how much is used, who uses it and where – as discussed earlier in the section on the epidemiological triangle. Equally, the soft/hard distinction can also be used to build an argument as to which drugs (i. Drugs and the Law Drug laws in Ireland are complex and subject to change and schools are advised to be proactive in developing a good working relationship with local Gardaí as they will be able to clarify issues relating to drug laws. The laws that are the most relevant to the school setting include the Misuse of Drugs Acts 1977 and 1984. Offences under the Misuse of Drugs Act include: y Possession of any small amount for personal use y Possession with intent to supply to another person y Production y Supplying or intent to supply to another person y Importation or Exportation y Allowing premises you occupy to be used for the supply or production of drugs or permitting the use of drugs on premises y Growing of opium poppies, cannabis and coca plants y The printing or sale of books or magazines that encourage the use of controlled drugs or which contain advertisements for drug equipment There are other laws controlling tobacco, alcohol, solvents and medicines. Equally, drugs, their various uses and our understanding of them change over tim e. W ith this in m ind, there is a list of organisations and websites at the end of this handbook which you can consult if you encounter substances or related behaviours not included in the following section. Tobacco use also figures in cannabis smoking, where cannabis users may use tobacco along with the crumbled cannabis resin in the production of a joint or spliff (hand-rolled cannabis cigarette). Tobacco can also be administered via smokeless products such as snuff, which is sniffed, or ‘dipped’ that is, held between the lip and the gum of the mouth. Under Section 6 of the Tobacco (Health Promotion and Protection) Act 1988 the importation and distribution of these smokeless products are banned due to concerns around their adverse effects on health. However, the acute effects of nicotine dissipate within a few minutes and nicotine disappears from the body in a few hours, as it is metabolised fairly rapidly. It is the combination of the mode of administration (smoking) and nicotine’s highly addictive properties (the W orld Health Organisation ranks nicotine as being more addictive than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, cannabis and caffeine18) which impact on the number of dependent users. By inhaling, the smoker can get nicotine to the brain very rapidly with every puff. A typical smoker will take 10 puffs on a cigarette over a period of five minutes that the cigarette is lit. Thus, a person who smokes about one and a half packs (30 cigarettes) daily gets 300 ‘hits’ of nicotine to the brain each day. W ithin eight hours of stopping, oxygen in the blood increases to norm al levels and carbon m onoxide levels in the blood drop to norm al.
However 40 mg lipitor overnight delivery cholesterol lowering foods coconut oil, the present policy climate in clinical information buy lipitor 40 mg overnight delivery nutrition cholesterol lowering foods, on both the ven- dor and provider sides order cheap lipitor line is cholesterol in shrimp good, approaches anarchy. Tens of thousand of lives are needlessly lost every year because of inadequate or poorly coordinated care. Creating the infrastructure and decision support to improve standards of care is a legitimate job for government. Current Medicare and private pay- ment policy contains inappropriate incentives, not only to maximize provider income by doing more, perhaps, than patients may need to care for them, but, by implication, to wait until a disease progresses far enough to justify more lucrative, high-technology intervention. Maintenance of health, disease management, advice and coun- seling—these are not the focus of the current healthcare payment schemes. Furthermore, as we enter an era of increasingly precise genetic prediction, the economy is already laboring to take care of the 5 percent of the population who are sick; how can it possibly ﬁnance care for everyone who has some genetic risk of illness? Ideally, physicians would be paid a monthly or annual subscription fee for each consumer who signed up to be cared for by the physician. Some of the emerging and controversial concepts in physician practice, like so-called “boutique medicine,” where consumers pay a fee to enter a physician’s practice, anticipate this subscription model. The key to the subscription is establishing electronic connectiv- ity between the consumer and the physician he or she has chosen. After electronic connectivity has been established between con- sumers and providers, maintaining electronic contact with con- sumers should be far less costly than under a visit-and-telephone- consultation system. Many interactions that required patient visits under the old system could be handled “asynchronously” under the electronic system, with software assistance supported by the physician’s ofﬁce staff. Many functions, like prescription renewals, transmittal of vi- tal signs, scheduling, and billing, that were handled in person or through telephone interactions could be automated through Inter- net applications and managed by the physician’s or hospital’s staff. In addition, someone other than the physician may handle many requests for information. Subscription fees would cover maintenance of the 24/7 connec- tions, as well as the cost of most services the consumer would use in a year. The fees would be paid to the principal physician by the health plan or federal government, which would be functioning not as a ﬁscally interested intermediary, but rather as a sponsor of the relationship. The costs of periodic screening both for genetic and cellular abnormalities would be included in the subscription amount. Hospitalizations and other relatively rare medical interventions would probably be paid separately from the subscription amount. These costs, as well as those of specialists and consultants, would 166 Digital Medicine Figure 7. These per-episode payments would be larger for older consumers or those with complex health problems. Physicians should have broad discretion in determining what type of services are provided, but should have an incentive to economize where possible. As with surgical procedures, hospi- talizations would carry a substantial consumer cost share, based on ability to pay. The method of payment should be neutral on the cost of im- munizations and immune therapy. The custom fabrication of im- munizations or other forms of therapy based on the consumer’s genotype would be treated as an “episode of care” like a surgical procedure, but to encourage these preventive measures, the cost should be borne separately by the health plan and be shared mod- estly with the patient or the physician to encourage them to be used. Health Policy Issues Raised by Information Technology 167 Substantial consumer cost sharing, graded to income, would be essential to exert a braking inﬂuence on procedure costs. Thus, consumers and physicians would have the same incentive to avoid unnecessary care, or care that could be made unnecessary by suc- cessful management of identiﬁed health risks. The “intelligent” clinical information system discussed earlier could provide the information base not only to analyze patterns of healthcare spending, but also to determine the most effective methods of care. Analysis of this information across large groups of patients could give to providers at risk for the cost of care the tools and information needed to make intelligent decisions about how to maximize the health of their subscribers. This information was missing in nearly all of the examples where physicians groups attempted to manage “capitated” payment during the 1990s (and went broke doing it). The principal way that physicians would increase their income is by enrolling more consumers and by minimizing the amount of cu- rative medicine their patients need. They would grow their practices by earning higher consumer satisfaction evaluations and garnering referrals from satisﬁed customers. These satisfaction scores would be posted on consumer web sites and be available to help guide consumers’ choice of physicians. Physicians who do an especially skillful job of organizing their connectivity and support for con- sumers, particularly responding to consumer questions and manag- ing disease-management protocols, could handle a larger panel of consumers than physicians today. The more effective physicians are in helping consumers identify and manage their medical risks, the more they earn. To encourage this, physician fees for medical and surgical procedures should be paid out of the per-episode-of-care amount, creating incentives for physicians to work with their consumers to minimize the need for these procedures. Under a subscription system, physicians who continued relying on patient visits and telephone interactions would have higher over- head and not be able to “scale up” effectively to handle larger groups 168 Digital Medicine of consumers/subscribers. Computer technology and effective sup- port stafﬁng could markedly improve physician productivity as well as result in better health outcomes for subscribers. We must begin thinking as a society about how to manage a po- tential quantum increase in health expenses. This expense increase would occur with a constant population that was not aging, given the technological advances that have been discussed. Add to this technological transformation an expanding population and the im- pending retirement of a 76-million-person cohort of baby boomers (whose oldest members are 57 in 2003), and one has all the necessary ingredients for ﬁscal catastrophe. How the responsibility for paying for that rise is distributed among the var- ious responsible parties is the essential societal debate. The emerging predictive tools and expensive remedies for disease beg the question of how much longer this can remain a tenable way of thinking about health ﬁnancing. The concept of identiﬁable genetic disease risk and the (slowly) emerging capability to manage those risks will give our society powerful new tools to improve the quality of our lives. In the face of these emerging technologies, continuing to view healthcare as something to which consumers are simply entitled, to be paid for with someone else’s money, under economic incentives that encourage physicians to maximize their income by doing more, is irresponsible social policy. Finding a humane and responsible balance of risk and responsibility for health and health cost is the Health Policy Issues Raised by Information Technology 169 most unpleasant but necessary piece of health policy on the national horizon. By the time this transformation is completed, our health system will be wired (as well as wireless), more intelligent, and much more responsive to both consumers and caregivers. Nevertheless, those who are interested in having such a system in the near future must be sobered by the difﬁculty for the health system to achieve real change. This is explained by a corollary proposition, ﬁrst made by 171 Nathan Myrvold, the former chief technology ofﬁcer for Microsoft, who once said, “Software is a gas. It has been easier for software ﬁrms to grow through acquisition and patch together interfaces than to fundamentally reexamine how their tools can be used to make healthcare better.
Licensed Dietitians/Nutritionists Nutrition is an essential therapeutic intervention in Lifestyle Medicine lipitor 10 mg sale cholesterol levels in shrimp. The knowledge and skills of the nutrition professional will determine the success of nutrition treatments offered by the practice order 10mg lipitor with amex cholesterol levels kidney disease. Exercise Physiologists/Exercise Coaches/Personal Trainers Fitness assessments and exercise prescriptions are essential components of a Lifestyle Medicine treatment plan and exercise professionals are essential members of a Lifestyle Medicine treatment team buy generic lipitor on-line cholesterol test tips. They may or may not also be nutrition professionals but they are role models for patients and may be asked by patients for nutrition advice. All patients of a Lifestyle Medicine practice should receive the same clear consistent message from all members of their treatment team. Psychologist/Licensed Therapists/Health Coaches Behavior modification is the key element of Lifestyle Medicine treatment. Professionals who can assist patients to understand and transform unhealthy behaviors into health promoting ones are essential members of the Lifestyle Medicine treatment team. These professionals should have a degree in psychology or a related field or certification as a health coach; a valid state license to practice if needed; and training in the principles of Lifestyle Medicine to ensure that all patients get the same clear consistent message from all members of their treatment team. Nurse Practitioners/Physician’s Assistants/Nurses/Medical Assistants Medical office staff with direct patient contact can reinforce or detract from the Lifestyle Medicine message of the practice. These professionals need standard certifications and state licenses plus formal or in-service training on the basic principles of Lifestyle Medicine. Training would include the benefits of a plant based diet, regular exercise, and stress management techniques that these professionals can incorporate into their personal lives and share with patients. Preventive care as currently practiced focuses on screening to detect diseases that can be treated with pharmaceuticals drugs or surgery. Lifestyle issues are not always effectively addressed in the setting because of provider training and time constraints. There is a need for development of effective complementary methods to provide lifestyle health information to patients such as: Workplace environmental and human resource interventions School presentations or incorporation of Lifestyle principles into school curricula. It is an excellent way to assist patients to form community around solving their health care problems. Currently, the typical patient spends 15- 30 minutes with a doctor/health provider during an individual medical appointment. Patients often report that before they were finished relating their problem the provider was writing a prescription and indicating that the session is over with no explanation of the medical problem or the medications prescribed. A shared appointment can last from 90 minutes to 3 hours depending on the structure of the Lifestyle Medicine intervention. This allows patients to spend more time with their healthcare team and with other patients who have similar health issues. Patients can learn from the health care team and from each other, sharing stories and ideas and creating social bonds. Diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and Crohn’s disease that were once thought to be irreversible have all been completely reversed by comprehensive lifestyle changes. There is a wide variety of health promoting behaviors that have been successfully used in the treatment of lifestyle diseases but generally most lifestyle related diseases benefit from the same simple lifestyle behavior changes. These include, but are not limited to optimum nutrition, physical activity, stress management, tobacco cessation, and improved interpersonal relationships. Eating behaviors are formed in childhood and determined not by conscious thought but by unconscious sociocultural norms, beliefs, and taste preferences. The most current scientific evidence available supports the use of whole unprocessed or minimally processed plant foods as treatment for most of the lifestyle related illnesses in our population 28, 29, 30, 31 Regardless of medical specialty, all physicians should be educated about this scientific literature, and advising patients to make these dietary changes should be considered the standard of care. A brief nutrition survey should be repeated periodically at follow-up visits to assess progress or deterioration. Nutrition/dietary treatment prescriptions should be based on the results of nutrition assessments and evidence-based nutrition research. This can include a wide variety of activities such as providing nutrition clinics, seminars and other resources, introducing patients to new foods at food sampling events, holding cooking classes, providing personalized meal plans with shopping lists, leading supermarket and farmers market tours, visiting urban farms, starting community gardens, organizing personal chef services and/or providing packaged foods services to make healthy food choices more convenient for busy patients. Every five years the Federal government issues dietary guidelines that are intended to promote health and also satisfy food industry interests. Current Federal dietary guidelines recommend decreasing cholesterol and saturated fat intake, and increasing intake of fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains. Dietary cholesterol crystals injure All ages and endothelial cells and start the inflammatory process that 36 genders leads to heart disease and strokes. The health benefits of exercise apply to children and adults of all ages and social groups and to patients with chronic diseases and disabilities. Any lifestyle improvement advice given by health care professionals is valuable, but exercise advice alone without dietary changes will be ineffective for many patients. Exercise without dietary changes may maintain current weight but will not lead to significant weight loss or reversal of lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis. A basic assessment measures flexibility, strength, and cardiovascular endurance, other parameters may be added as needed. Most of ¨When possible try to meet the Adolescents the time should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity guidelines. If this is 64) minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity not possible, patients should be as or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous- physically active as their abilities intensity aerobic physical allow. Older Adults Follow the adult guidelines, or be as physically active as Develop an activity plan with (65+) possible. All patients should be screened initially and periodically for signs of unhealthy stress responses and stress-related conditions such as depression. Lifestyle Medicine providers should be knowledgeable about basic evidence-based stress management techniques that they can share with patients. Common evidence-based stress- management techniques include: Autogenic training/Guided Imagery,47 are relaxation techniques that involves visualizations to induce a state of relaxation. Patients can use an instructor, tapes, or scripts to guide them through the process. Practiced daily for 15 minutes 3 times a day the technique has been shown to alleviate many stress- related life conditions such as chronic pain, tension headache, anxiety, and depression. Distorted thoughts/cognitive distortions underlie many forms of unhealthy behaviors and mental illnesses. Diaphragmatic Breathing 47 is a breathing technique that focuses on movement of the abdomen when breathing. This type of breathing has been shown to lower blood pressure, reduce pain, and reduce anxiety especially in children with asthma. Meditation 47 is a catch-all term for a wide variety of practices where individuals attempt to focus awareness. Countless studies have shown the benefits of meditation as treatment for stress related health conditions. Measurable physiological changes such as decreased heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and positively altered brain wave activity have been documented during meditation. Meditation has been shown to promote relaxation, improve cognitive function and relieve depression, anxiety and chronic pain.
In the future cheap lipitor 20 mg free shipping cholesterol levels for child, it is going to be extremely difficult not to fully comply with the prescribed therapy proven lipitor 40mg cholesterol lowering foods ireland. Moreover discount lipitor 5 mg without a prescription high cholesterol foods chart, compliance with medication should be as simple and comfortable for patients as possible. Artificial Intelligence in Medical Decision Support The knowledge of even the most acclaimed professors cannot compete with cognitive computers and as the amount of information is exponentially growing, the use of such computing solutions in assisting medical decision making is imminent. This is why Watson has been tested in oncology centers to see whether it could be used in the decision making process of doctors regarding cancer treatments. Watson does not answer medical questions, but based on the input data, it comes up with the most relevant and potential outcomes, and the doctor has the final call. Artificial Organs An artificial organ is a device or biomaterial that is implanted into the body to replace a natural organ or its function. Surgeons have been able to implant artificial skin, cartilage, synthetic windpipes and artificial blood vessels. In the near future, we will be able not only to replace the functionality of our organs with biomaterials and synthetic devices, but to grow organs which can replace a non-functioning natural organ in its full physiological capacity. Although probably, a certain number of such organs would be used for cosmetic purposes instead of life support. Getting information from the internet by wearing a Google Glass or digital contact lenses would be a huge addition to the process of practicing medicine. Operations have already been streamed live from the surgeon’s perspective; but it could also display the patient’s electronic medical records real-time; or organize live consultations with colleagues. Google Glass can be controlled through voice and hand gestures; while the contact lenses will be controlled with brain waves as there are developments in this area. The whole potential of leveraging the power of augmented reality is huge, although medical professionals should deal with patient privacy and put evidence behind using it in practice. Augmenting Human Capabilities Medical research is meant to discover and develop methods to replace non-functioning organs, capabilities or restore certain functions in the human body. But with the rapid advances of research, instead of only replacing functions, it would be possible to add to our current capabilities and create „super powers”. We could decide what to dream about, how to metabolize drugs, how to digest different types of food; to increase brain function or improve our strength through powered exoskeletons. Curated Online Information In the near future, whether it is the right and reliable medical information, dynamic resources or medical records online; everything will simply be available to everyone which would purely be the most important development in the history of medicine. As people have to deal with false or unreliable information and resources, curating these with medical professionals and expert patients is the key. Customized Mobile Apps The number of medical mobile applications has been rising for years, therefore patients and doctors find it harder and harder to choose the right app for their health management or work. Customized mobile apps such as the pApp that lets doctors create mobile apps for their patients could be the next step. The functions the app should have such as logging blood pressure or medications can be chosen from a menu; and the patient can download the app right away. Digestible Sensors It is possible to swallow digital devices and tiny sensors for gathering and storing data, transmitting body temperature, heart and respiration rate to an external device. In diseases related to our gastrointestinal system, it could give instant diagnosis by combining the results of lab markers and colonoscopy only by swallowing the device that includes a video camera as well. Digital Literacy in Medical Education The only way to prepare healthcare professionals for the digital technologies coming to medicine is to include digital literacy and the main trends of the future of medicine in the official medical curriculum. Medical students can access the materials in a gamification based e-learning platform, and answer questions about the topics covered in the lectures on a Facebook page for bonus points. A new course, Disruptive Technologies in Medicine, aims at introducing students to the technologies from genomics to telemedicine they will use by the time they start practicing medicine. Expensive laboratory equipment is not so much needed for performing biological experiments; elements of the experiments can be ordered on demand and the data or information required are much more accessible than before. The iGem events made it absolutely clear that the number of opportunities in using biotech for different purposes is almost infinite. The new generation of scientists represented by Jack Andraka leverages the power of already available resources and materials in order to come up with real innovations. Embedded Sensors As an addition to digestable and wearable sensors, tooth- embedded sensors can recognize jaw movements, coughing, speaking and even smoking. Evidence-based Mobile Health The number of medical mobile applications has been rising for years, although persuading users to keep on using the apps is a real challenge. The question is not whether such applications could be used in the process of practicing medicine or delivering healthcare, but which ones and to what extent can be useful, therefore evidence based background is needed for implementing mobile apps in the clinical settings. Full Physiological Simulation What if it is possible to examine the human body with all its physiological functions without experimenting with people? One of the most potential applications being developed in this area is the Virtual Physiological Human, a framework enabling collaborative investigation of the human body. Medical students would be able to study the human body in details like never before understanding the core concepts of how our body works and the pathology of diseases. Another example, HumMod consists of 5000 variables describing cardiovascular and metabolic physiology, among others. Gamification Based Wellness Gamification seems to be the key in persuading people to live a healthy lifestyle or stick to the therapy they have been prescribed to as 63% of American adults agree that making everyday activities more like a game would make them more fun and rewarding. Such wearable gadgets, online services, games or mobile health solutions can lead to better results if gamification with the right design is included. Improving our health or making our job more efficient can and therefore should be fun. Holographic Data Input While better data input solutions arise, hardware will probably not even be needed to add data as screens and keyboards will be projected on the wall or on the table making it simple and accessible everywhere in the clinical settings. Holographic keyboards will make us forget about smartphones and tablets, while the data will be stored only in the cloud. Plenty of laboratory methods and procedures will be available at home which could also mean the detection of diseases at an early stage making intervention simpler and more effective. Patients will bring the data to the doctor on any device they use therefore a new role of digital health data analyst will appear soon. Humanoid Robots Robots built to resemble the shape of the human body might soon play a role in our lives. Due to the shortage of caregivers worldwide, humanoid robots could be able to provide basic care or company for patients. In a few years’ time, not only these robots will assist patients worldwide, but we will be able to print them in 3D based on specific blueprints. Whether serving as companions for sick children; teaching kids with autism; or personal assistants helping elderly patients, humanoid robots have the potential of transforming the face of healthcare. Inter-disciplinary Therapies Without doubt, the future belongs to interdisciplinary innovations. This way the rest of the brain remains unaffected so the risk of the procedure is minimized. Medical professionals in any specialties have to start looking at the same medical problem from different angles and as medical education focuses on giving a very much specialized knowledge, social media and other digital technologies can help us get glimples into other areas looking for new ways of collaboration. Combining the knowledge of physicians from different specialties and cognitive computing could result in the best outcomes for patients.
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