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All wounds are meticulously irrigated and fold of fascia on either side of the anchor and suture to hemostasis is obtained prior to closure cheap 162.5 mg avalide with visa hypertension chart. In this case buy avalide in united states online blood pressure device, the pump can then be started in the offce without a priming bolus as the diffusion of drugs from the reservoir will equilibrate in the catheter cheap avalide line quercetin high blood pressure medication. Some Side Effects and Complications advocate this as it avoids a priming bolus and the risk of bolus drug dosing due to the rate of diffusion There are a number of complications that can occur with exceeding the priming bolus rate. Complications can basically be subdivided in to two facets: (1) the initial technical implanta- tion of the pump and (2) long-term complications associated Drugs with the therapy (Table 45. With appropriate work- up, good surgical technique, and postoperative vigilance, the There are multiple drugs that are widely used for intrathecal complications should be rare. The current Bupivacaine 1–4 mg/d standard of care of intrathecal therapies refects on current Clonidine 40–100 mcg/d knowledge from literature and clinical experience. Analysis Sufentanil 10–20 mcg/d of published literature is combined with clinical experience of a large panel of scientist and clinicians to form recom- Table 45. These recommendations should guide Maximum clinical practice, but are not a substitute for clinical judge- Drugs concentration Maximum daily dose ment and are not meant to be a legal document establishing Morphine 20 mg/ml 15 mg the standard of care (Table 45. Hydromorphone is recommended on the basis of widespread clinical use and apparent safety. Fentanyl has been upgraded to frst-line use by the consensus conference Line 2: Bupivacaine in combination with morphine, hydromorphone, or fentanyl is recommended. Alternatively, the combination of ziconotide and an opioid drug can be employed Line 3: Recommendations include clonidine plus an opioid (i. An alternate recommendation is sufentanil in combina- tion with either bupivacaine or clonidine Line 5: The triple combination of sufentanil, bupivacaine, and clonidine is suggested 45 Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems 679 Table 45. Surgical implantation of both the catheter and pump take implant very specifc skills. Complications and success dependent Early complications Late complications on surgical implantation. Prior to implant, the patient should undergo a proper Dural leak Pump refll (miss reservoir port) medical and psychological evaluation and have reason- Pain at insertion site Drug effects (low testosterone) able expectation of good outcomes in terms of pain relief Spinal cord or nerve injury Catheter break or failure (withdrawal) and quality of life. Management of intrathecal pump patients requires vigi- Pump overdose lance and continued monitoring of benefts and complica- tions such as intrathecal granuloma and pocket refll. Evidence-guided drug selection algorithms have been developed based on best practices, safety, and preclinical Granulomas are one of the most devastating complications of data. A granuloma is an infammatory mass that typically forms around the tip of a catheter. In severe cases, it can cause Key Points spinal cord compression resulting in a neurologic defcit . Symptomatic granulomas rarely occur but are a drug directly to the spinal fuid and receptors. The intrathecal method allows for a lower equipotent doses of intrathecal opiates. One should consider an intrathe- dose as compared to other delivery routes and may cause cal granuloma when there is a sudden loss of analgesia fol- lower systemic effects secondary to both lower blood lowing the intrathecal medications, or a new neurological levels of both the drug and associated metabolites. Baclofen has been approved by the Food and Drug Guidelines have been created to minimize the risk of Administration to treat chronic spasticity. Patients should be considered for an intrathecal pump if pain is either refractory to acceptable medical therapy or 1. The intrathecal method allows for a lower equipotent dose-limited due to signifcant side effects. There are patients who are poor candidates for an intra- lower systemic effects secondary to both lower blood lev- thecal drug infusion system because of psychological els of both the drug and associated metabolites. A qualitative sys- vary based on the doctor’s country of practice and patient tematic review. The implanting physician should consider and meta-analysis of the effcacy and safety of prescription opioids, these issues before surgery. Mosby: University of priate fellowship training or additional continuing edu- Michigan; 1994. Reply to commentaries on “Randomized helpful in death and dying discussions and proper clinical trial of an implantable drug delivery system compared to counseling. Prior to implant, the patient should undergo a proper impact on pain, drug-related toxicity, and survival”. Trialing for intrathecal therapies are controversial and a randomized controlled trial. Accuracy and effcacy of intrathe- predict outcomes for a pump including both intrathecal cal administration of morphine sulfate for treatment of intractable pain using the Prometra programmable pump. Prevention of intrathecal Outcomes include pain relief, side effects, and func- drug delivery catheter-related complications. Some physicians have chosen to implant these devices implantable drug delivery system compared with comprehensive without a trial. At this time, no long-term studies exist to medical management for refractory cancer pain: impact on pain, predict the outcome of trialing or eliminating the trial drug-related toxicity, and survival. Multidimensional outcomes analy- sis of intrathecal, oral opioid, and behavioral-functional restoration 14. Evidence-guided drug selection algorithms have been therapy for failed back surgery syndrome: a retrospective study developed based on best practices. Polyanalgesic consensus confer- rithms should be considered, and accompanying safety ence--2012: recommendations on trialing for intrathecal (intra- spinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary expert panel. Infect Control Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Hosp Epidemiol. Rockville: Substance Abuse of surgical wound infection after preoperative skin preparation and Mental Health Services Administration; 2007. Comprehensive con- a systematic review and meta-analysis of effcacy, tolerability and sensus based guidelines on intrathecal drug delivery systems safety in randomized placebo-controlled studies of at least 4 weeks in the treatment of pain caused by cancer pain. Case of spinal cord compression syndrome by a ference 2012: recommendations for the management of pain by fbrotic mass presenting in a patient with an intrathecal pain man- intrathecal (intraspinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary agement pump system. In the classic paper published in Science Introduction in November of 1965, they suggested that pain can be blocked by stimulation of large A-β fbers in order to close the gate to Electrical stimulation of nerves has become the main the nociceptive input which is transmitted by small A-δ and alternative to many neuroablative treatments for the treat- C fbers. This the affected peripheral nerve is more appropriate and effec- approach allows for positioning the stimulating electrodes tive. History The application of electricity for the treatment of painful Pathophysiology conditions is as old as civilization. However, the modern era of electrical stimulation of nerves was not realized until the • The damage of peripheral nerves often leads to chronic late 1960s after Melzack and Wall proposed the “Gate neuropathic pain . Peripheral neuropathic pain condi- tions can be exacerbated by innocuous stimuli (allodynia) and painful stimulus (hyperalgesia). Drawing on the right illustrated a section of a fascicle showing a myelinated Epineurium Endoneurium axon and three unmyelinated axons all surrounded by Schwann cells Axon Fascicle Myelin Blood vessel Perineurium – Trauma is the leading cause of peripheral nerve damage. Macrophages are either resident in the tissue or derived Physical injury may also cause nerves to be compressed from other tissues via blood stream. They release mediators which contribute to from traumatic injury to a specifc nerve. Axons Evidence Base and Schwann cells are surrounded by the endoneurium, while all the different fascicles that constitute the nerve • Evidence is determined based on a best evidence synthesis trunk are contained within the epineurium (Fig.
Quantitative 24-hour urinary fractionated metanephrine levels are the most 40 reliable screening procedures; they provide a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 91% buy generic avalide 162.5 mg line blood pressure medication bruising. I-metaiodobenzylguanidine can localize catecholamine-producing lesions cheapest generic avalide uk blood pressure reducers, and F- 40 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning can visualize metastatic disease purchase avalide us blood pressure medication and adderall. Genetic 40 testing can aid counseling of patients with established disease and their families. Treatment 40 Definitive treatment of pheochromocytoma requires removal of the lesion. Accurate preoperative localization reduces the operative mortality rate and eliminates the need for exploratory laparotomy. Endoscopic procedures are now standard for small tumors, and open resection is indicated for large 40 tumors (e. Preoperative pharmacologic treatment should be provided to prevent perioperative cardiovascular 40 complications. It includes 7 to 14 days of alpha-adrenergic blockade (usually with doxazosin, prazosin, or phenoxybenzamine) to normalize the blood pressure. Beta-blocking drugs can normalize the heart rate but should follow the establishment of a sufficient alpha blockade. Before surgical treatment, a high- sodium diet and fluid intake should be started to improve the blood volume contraction and prevent severe hypotension after tumor removal. Operative intervention requires constant blood pressure monitoring, and intravenous phentolamine or sodium nitroprusside may be required to treat episodic 40 hypertension intraoperatively. Gauges of the success of surgery include effective blood pressure and symptom improvement, as well as measurement of urinary catecholamines 4 weeks after the procedure. Lifelong annual biochemical testing to assess for recurrent or metastatic disease is necessary. Parathyroid Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease Diseases of the parathyroid glands can produce cardiovascular disease and alter cardiac function through two mechanisms. Primary hyperparathyroidism producing hypercalcemia most often results from adenomatous enlargement of one of the four parathyroid glands. Treatment with digitalis glycosides appears to increase sensitivity of the heart to hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia may lead to pathologic changes in the heart, including the myocardial interstitium and conducting system, as well as calcific deposits in the valve cusps, annuli, and possibly coronary arteries. Although initially observed in fairly long-standing and severe hypercalcemia, so-called metastatic calcifications can also occur in secondary parathyroid disease arising from chronic renal failure, in which the serum calcium-phosphorus product constant is exceeded. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism generally maintain normal left ventricular systolic function, but severe or chronic disease may impair diastolic function. Changes in left ventricular structure and function do not appear to improve by 1 to 2 45 years after successful parathyroid surgery. Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, routinely encountered in clinical endocrinology practice, may not require definitive treatment. Hypocalcemia Low serum levels of total and ionized calcium directly alter myocyte function. Severe hypocalcemia can impair cardiac contractility and give rise to a diffuse musculoskeletal syndrome consisting of tetany and rhabdomyolysis. Primary hypoparathyroidism is rare and can develop after surgical removal of the parathyroid glands, as may occur after treatment of thyroid cancer; in the setting of polyglandular dysfunction syndromes, as a result of glandular agenesis (DiGeorge) syndrome; and in the rare heritable disorder pseudohypoparathyroidism. Cinacalcet can treat the secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure. A trial to assess its effectiveness on cardiovascular events, however, showed no significant benefit. Observational evidence suggests that lower levels of vitamin D are associated with increased all-cause 51,52 and cardiovascular morbidity rates. Epidemiologic studies have also recently linked vitamin D deficiency with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and a twofold risk of myocardial infarction. Thyroid Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease The thyroid gland and the heart share a close relationship that arises during embryologic life. Changes in cardiovascular function in all types of 54-56 thyroid disease illustrate the close physiologic relationship between the heart and the thyroid. Cellular Mechanisms of Thyroid Hormone Action on the Heart Diagnosis and management of thyroid hormone–mediated cardiac disease states require understanding of 54-56 the cellular mechanisms of thyroid hormone on the heart and vascular smooth muscle cells. The active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine, accounts for the vast majority of biologic effects, including stimulation of tissue thermogenesis, alterations in the expression of various cellular proteins, and actions on the heart and 54-57 vascular smooth muscle cells. D1 is expressed in the liver and kidney, and D2 is expressed in the central nervous system, bone, skin, pituitary gland, brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart. Type 3 deiodinase (D3) can inactivate both T and T and acts primarily during embryonic life; in healthy adults,4 3 59 its expression persists in the heart and can arise in ischemic tissue. As reported for the steroid and retinoic acid families of receptor proteins, the thyroid hormone receptors bind as homodimers or heterodimers to the thyroid hormone response elements in a promoter region of specific genes. The human ventricle expresses3 primarily beta-myosin, and limited alterations in isoform expression accompany thyroid disease states. Changes in myosin heavy chain isoform expression occur in the human atria in various diseases, 54-56,59,61,62 including congestive heart failure and severe hypothyroidism. Reuptake of calcium into the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum early in diastole in part determines the rate at which the left ventricle relaxes (isovolumic relaxation time). Thyroid hormone inhibits the expression of 54-56 phospholamban and increases phospholamban phosphorylation. This molecular mechanism can explain why diastolic function varies inversely across the entire spectrum of thyroid disease states, 63-65 including even mild subclinical hypothyroidism (Fig. In addition, beta-adrenergic blockade of the heart in hyperthyroidism does not decrease the rapid diastolic relaxation, thus further dissociating thyroid 54-56 hormone from the adrenergic effects of thyrotoxicosis. In addition to the well-characterized nuclear effects of thyroid hormone, some cardiac responses to 68,69 thyroid hormone appear to result from nontranscriptional mechanisms, as suggested by their relatively rapid onset of action—faster than attributable to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis—and failure to be affected by inhibitors of gene transcription. Thyroid Hormone–Catecholamine Interaction Early observations of the heart in hyperthyroidism emphasized that it was functioning similar to the way it might in hyperadrenergic states, and this finding led to the proposal that sensitivity to catecholamines might be enhanced in this setting. This postulate formed the basis for the test described by Emil Goetsch in 1918, in which hyperthyroidism could be diagnosed by demonstrating a marked cardioacceleration and blood pressure response to small subcutaneous doses of epinephrine. The increased beta -adrenergic1 receptors on cardiac myocytes observed in experimental hyperthyroidism provide a mechanism for the 70,71 enhanced catecholamine sensitivity. A carefully controlled study of nonhuman primates, however, found no increase in sensitivity of the heart or cardiovascular system to catecholamines in experimental 71 hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis of Thyroid Function Disorders There is a battery of sensitive and specific laboratory tests that can establish a diagnosis of thyroid disease with a high degree of precision. Hashimoto disease, prior thyroid surgery, and, in some parts of 55 the world, iodine deficiency are the most common causes of hypothyroidism. Hemodynamic Alterations in Thyroid Disease Changes in myocardial contractility and hemodynamics occur across the entire spectrum of thyroid disease (Table 92.
Acute cardiac tamponade as a result of rupture with hemopericardium complicates 17 approximately 9% of type A dissections and is related to worse outcomes purchase avalide cheap blood pressure medication icu. Laboratory Findings The chest radiograph may be the first clue to the diagnosis of aortic dissection (eFig generic 162.5 mg avalide amex blood pressure tool. The dissected aorta may not be dilated purchase avalide us arteria ophthalmica superior, and its image may not be displaced or widened on x-ray film. The most common abnormality seen is an abnormal aortic contour or widening of the aortic silhouette, which appears in approximately 80% of 47 cases (83% of type A; 72% of type B). Thus, a normal chest radiograph cannot exclude the presence of an aortic dissection. Laboratory tests important to obtain when evaluating for complications of aortic dissection include complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic profile, lactic acid, troponin, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase levels. Ten percent of type B dissection patients have 1 electrocardiographic signs of ischemia. Reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis or exclusion of acute aortic dissection have stirred great interest. These markers have limited usefulness because of sensitivity, specificity, or time delay and are not currently appropriate for clinical use. Patients with acute aortic dissection have elevated D-dimer levels reaching 1,17,37 very high levels in many patients, making this a very useful biomarker for classic acute dissection. In patients seen within the first 24 hours of onset, a D-dimer level lower than 500 ng/mL had a negative likelihood ratio of 0. Additionally, patients may initially be seen longer than 24 hours after symptom onset, which affects D-dimer levels. Although a negative D-dimer result in low-suspicion patients may be useful, the negative likelihood ratio provided by the D-dimer assay is not sufficient in high-risk individuals and cannot “rule out” the disease in these 17 patients. Diagnostic Techniques When aortic dissection is suspected, expedient and accurate confirmation of the diagnosis is important. Each modality has advantages and disadvantages with respect to diagnostic ability, speed, convenience, 2 and risk. The choice of imaging study depends on the availability and expertise in the individual institution. If the probability of dissection is high and initial testing is negative or nondiagnostic, a second diagnostic test should be performed. When comparing imaging modalities, one must consider the diagnostic information needed. The false lumen usually has 1,2 slower flow and a larger diameter than the true lumen. The ascending aorta is dilated, and a complex dissection flap is visualized in the ascending aorta (upper arrow) and descending aorta (lower arrow). It is contraindicated in patients with certain implantable devices (pacemaker, defibrillator) and other metallic implants. The entry site is visualized as focal interruption of the linear image of the intimal flap (arrows). Color flow Doppler demonstrates differential flow in the two lumens and can detect intimal tears. When the false lumen is thrombosed, displacement of intimal calcification or thickening of the aortic wall suggests aortic dissection. Acute type A dissection visualized in longitudinal and short-axis views; arrows indicate dissection lamella (A) and an intimal tear close to the aortic leaflets (B). Aortography Aortography is no longer used for the initial diagnosis of suspected acute aortic dissection and is now used mainly during endovascular repair or coronary angiography. Compared with other imaging modalities, aortography has less accuracy in diagnosing aortic dissection. Role of Coronary Angiography Routine coronary angiography is not recommended before surgery for acute type A aortic dissection 17 because of concern about delay in emergency surgery. Besides the delay incurred, coronary angiography may be technically difficult in the patient with dissection. Arterial access may fail to gain entry into the true lumen, and injury to the aorta from the catheter or guidewire may cause extension of the dissection or perforation of the aorta. In patients undergoing surgery for acute type A dissection, coronary artery involvement by the dissection can most often be corrected intraoperatively, and angiography is not required. Evaluation and Management Algorithms The thoracic aortic disease guidelines provide an algorithm for the management of patients with 17,50 presentations compatible with acute aortic dissection (Fig. The presence of two or more high-risk features strongly suggests aortic dissection. Patients considered highly likely to have acute aortic dissection require emergency surgical consultation and expedited imaging. Patients whose features suggest aortic dissection and who do not have an alternative diagnosis require expedited imaging. Those with lower- risk profiles are evaluated for alternative diagnoses, but when none is considered likely or confirmed, aortic imaging is recommended. Further study is needed prospectively to validate the accuracy of this risk score. These measures should commence immediately while the patient is undergoing diagnostic evaluation. Emergency surgery leads to improved survival in patients with acute type A dissection, with an 18% in-hospital mortality for surgically treated type A dissection and 38 56% mortality for medically treated patients (see Fig. Patients with acute aortic dissection require urgent multidisciplinary evaluation and management. Emergency transfer to a tertiary medical center with access to cardiovascular surgery, vascular surgery, 1,17 interventional radiology, and cardiology is recommended for patients with acute dissection. Hospitals with higher procedural volumes for surgically managed patients with acute type A and B dissections have 1,51 lower mortality rates. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Radiology, American Stroke Association, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society for Vascular Medicine. Beta blockers should be administered even if the patient does not have hypertension. Esmolol is given as an initial bolus of 1000 µg/kg and then as a continuous infusion of 150 to 300 µg/kg/min. Labetalol is then administered by continuous infusion at a rate of 2 to 10 mg/min, up to 300 mg total cumulative dose. When evaluating refractory hypertension in acute dissection, the clinician must consider renal artery malperfusion, which may require endovascular therapy (eFig. Persistence of severe hypertension or signs of renal ischemia should prompt evaluation for renal artery involvement. Management of Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade, which occurs in 8% to 31% of acute type A dissections, is one of the most common 1,17,52 mechanisms of death in patients with dissection (eFig. Patients with tamponade may present with hypotension, syncope, or altered mental status and have double the in- 52 hospital mortality rate as those without tamponade (54% versus 25%). Therefore, in a relatively stable patient with acute type A dissection and cardiac tamponade, the risks associated with pericardiocentesis probably outweigh its benefits.
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