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There are no published studies regarding the teratogenic effects of this adenosine buy 3ml bimat medications 7. Cardiac glycosides are effective because of their inotropic effects on the heart and antiarrhythmic effects buy 3 ml bimat with visa treatment 4th metatarsal stress fracture. Various digitalis preparations cross the placenta readily order 3ml bimat with visa symptoms right after conception, resulting in significant fetal levels with cord levels that are 50–80 percent of maternal levels (Chan et al. No scientific studies regarding the safety of cardiac glycosides in pregnant women have been published. Fetal digitalis toxicity has occurred, but this was secondary to maternal overdose (Sherman and Locke, 1960). Available information supports the view that car- diac glycosides are probably safe for use during pregnancy. Low-molecular-weight heparin is also used to treat thromboembolism in pregnancy, and does not cross the pla- centa (Feijgin and Lourwood, 1994; Macklon et al. Warfarin derivatives are contraindicated for use during pregnancy Coumarin derivatives, including warfarin, are contraindicated for use during pregnancy. Use after the first trimester includes brain and eye defects, and other anomalies associated with vascular disruption. However, in a review of 172 pregnant women from published reports, Turrentine and associates (1995) found no increase in congenital anomalies and a pregnancy loss rate of 5. Among more than 140 infants exposed to heparin during the first trimester, the frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased (Chan et al. Similarly, in a literature review among more than 440 infants exposed to low molecular weight heparins during pregnancy, including nearly 200 infants whose mothers were treated during the first trimester, no congenital anom- alies were noted (Sanson et al. Seven to 10 infant defects would have been expected to occur in the absence of any drug exposure. Therefore, ascertainment bias may confound the detection of birth defects in their study. Protamine sulfate is used to reverse the anticoagulant effects of heparin prior to sur- gery (e. One infant with neonatal depression following maternal protamine sul- fate injection was reported Wittmaack et al. Organic nitrites are the most commonly used agents in this group, and nitroglycerin is the prototype organic nitrite agent. No human studies of organic nitrites in pregnant women have been pub- lished, although these agents were not teratogenic in animal studies. Antihypertensives 59 Intravenous nitroglycerin has also been utilized to blunt the hypertensive effect of endotracheal intubation in women with severe preeclampsia undergoing Caesarean sec- tion (Cheek and Samuels, 1996; Longmire et al. Other calcium antagonists, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, and nifedipine, may also be useful as antianginal agents and have not been reported to be associated with an increase in mal- formation rates in animal studies (Ariyuki, 1975). No studies of the use of other calcium channel antagonists use during pregnancy have been published. No information has been published on the use of dipyramidole, a selective coronary vasodilator, in pregnant women. The beta-blockers are discussed above, as well as in the Antihypertensives section below. Nonetheless, the available data suggest that methyldopa does not pose a significant risk of birth defects, and postnatal growth and development seems unaffected by prenatal exposure. In summary, it would appear that methyldopa is not a human teratogen and is prob- ably one of the safest antihypertensives for use during pregnancy. Hydralazine One of the commonly used antihypertensive drugs is hydralazine, especially for acutely lowering of blood pressure in women with severe preeclampsia. No epidemiological studies of congenital anomalies in children born to women who took hydralazine dur- ing pregnancy have been published. Although there are no large human reproduction studies for labetolol, metaprolol, or atenolol use in pregnant women, there are reports of their use without apparent adverse fetal effects. There are no reports of human teratogenicity for any of the beta-adrenergic blockers. Comparing oral labetolol to intravenous diazoxide for hypertensive crisis during pregnancy, no significant maternal or fetal side effects were observed (Michael, 1986). Among 104 labetolol- versus methyldopa-treated women with pregnancy-induced hypertension, labetolol caused fewer side effects than methyldopa (el-Qarmalawi et al. Labetolol is the agent of choice to blunt the hypertensive response to endotracheal intubation, with few maternal, fetal or neonatal side effects (Cheek and Samuels, 1996). No studies on the use of these agents during the first trimester of pregnancy are published. No increase in adverse maternal or fetal effects, includ- ing no significant differences in birth weight, were reported in 120 women treated with atenolol or placebo during pregnancy (Rubin et al. Similarly, no adverse fetal effects or pregnancy outcomes associated with metoprolol or metprolol/hydralazine treat- ment in second and third trimesters of pregnancy were noted (Sundstrom, 1978). Breastfeeding is allowed during maternal therapy with either metoprolol or atenolol (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1994), despite a case report of toxicity in a neonate whose mother was receiving atenolol while breastfeeding (Schmimmel et al. Neonatal hemodynamic adaptation failure occurred in five of 11 infants whose mothers were treated with aceb- utolol during pregnancy (Yassen et al. It seems unlikely that this drug is associ- ated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies. Among 51 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension randomized to Antihypertensives 61 hydralazine, hydralazine and propranolol, or hydralazine and pindolol, pindolol was associated with fewer maternal and fetal side effects (Paran et al. However, infants born to mothers who received propranolol had smaller birth weights. In a com- parative study of atenolol or pindolol on uterine/fetal hemodynamics and fetal cardiac function, investigators found that pindolol was preferable to atenolol for the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension based upon maternal and fetal cardiovascular func- tion (Rasanen and Jouppila, 1995). No increase in congenital malformations was noted in the offspring of pregnant mice who received up to 150 mg/kg. Also, no increase in the frequency of malformations was found among the offspring of rats, rabbits, and hamsters that had received nadolol in doses several times higher than the usual human dose (Sibley et al. No increased frequency of adverse fetal effects was found in the offspring of mice treated with penbutolol (Sugisaki et al. No epidemiologic studies of the frequency of congenital anomalies and cloni- dine use during early pregnancy have been published. Anecdotal case reports of clonidine use during pregnancy suggest no adverse fetal effects (Horvath et al. Head size and neurologic examination of 22 children whose mothers received clonidine during pregnancy were normal (Huisjes et al. One rat teratology study found no increased frequency of birth defects (Angelova et al. Clonidine is probably not associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies when used therapeutically. An oral form of this drug (Proglycem) is also used to treat hypoglycemia secondary to hyperinsulin- ism. An anecdotal case report of abnormalities of body and scalp hair, including alopecia, in four neonates of women who received oral diazoxide during the last trimester of pregnancy has been published (Milner and Chonskey, 1972). Maternal diazoxide therapy was also reportedly associated with hyperglycemia in the neonate (Milsap and Auld, 1980).
There is no randomization nor a control group as researchers felt that it would not be ethical not to intervene in the event there are problems in vaccine storage cheap 3ml bimat treatment 1st degree av block. Ethical considerations Researchers applied for approval prior to conduct of this study cheap bimat online american express medications containing sulfa. Consent will be obtained from practitioners at the selected clinics prior to the study trusted 3 ml bimat treatment yellow jacket sting. This was to ensure that this proposed incentive does not contravene any ethical or medico-legal issues. Variables Scale of Variables Operational Defnition Measurement Yes/No Two door/top loading refrigerator Appropriate type of refrigerator to store vaccines (nominal/categorical) Yes/No Dedicated refrigerator for vaccine Availability of a dedicated refrigerator for vaccines. Availability of a dedicated refrigerator for vaccines Yes/No Fulflled all 6 criteria# 3. Daily monitoring of internal refrigerator temperature This consisted of criterion #1 to #6 and also allowed the Yes/No Fulflled all 6 criteria & drug@ refrigerator to also store drugs together with vaccines. The refrigerator Yes/No Fulflled all 4 criteria+ type and placement of refrigerator was excluded from the (nominal/categorical) criterion list. The refrigerator type and placement of refrigerator was excluded from the Yes/No Fulflled all 4 criteria & drug@ criterion list. This allowed the refrigerator to also store (nominal/categorical) drugs together with vaccines. From this, a geographically convenient sample of clinics will be selected to improve response rate. Hence, we decided to extend the study to two other regions, using simple random sampling. Exclusion criteria All private hospitals, private physician clinics affliated to hospitals or facilities that had a central pharmacy store providing and distributing vaccines. The minimum number of clinics required was 81, and to account for poor response rate, a minimum sample of 100 per region will be targeted. Techniques for data collection & pre-testing Tools used in the community trial included: 1. An introduction letter to the study for the private doctor, endorsed by the respective State Health Departments and pediatricians in the research team (Appendix D). A fier on the Cold Chain Survey, which provides information on the purpose of the study, assurance of confdentially, benefts of participation in the study and number of audit visits. These two tools above will be shown by the research nurses upon frst entry to the clinic as means to facilitate consent to participate in the study. An audit form (checklist) that covered the six core areas for vaccine storage and other pertinent questions (refer). The checklist incorporated an assessment of problems with the current cold chain practice and recommended ideal practices. Fidelity form – This is to monitor quality of implementation of the intervention and feldwork by research nurses. Value of survey – this is a self-administered tool, to be hand delivered to the clinic practtoner and collected back by research nurses within 2 days. Verifcaton of thermometers used in the research will be done by comparing the reading of research nurse thermometers with the thermometers in the Ministry of Health refrigerators used in vaccine storage. Pretest The audit form (checklist) will be pre-tested in private pediatrician clinics not included in the study sample. Plan for data analysis & interpretation We will analyze clinic vaccine storage practice in terms of fulflling either all six criteria, or the minimum four criteria. In addition, we plan to compare results of clinic vaccine refrigerators with and without drugs and/or reagents stored together. Analyses will at clinic level, and applied to only all refrigerators storing vaccines. Clinic performance will be deemed adequate only if all clinic refrigerators storing vaccines passed the audit. Dummy tables (only selected tables reproduced) Summarized version of proposal: vaccine storage in Private Practce. Risk factors for improper vaccine storage and handling in private provider offces. Assessment of cold chain refrigerator and applications of pharmacies: a cross-sectional study in Mersin, Turkey. Global programme for vaccines and immunization Expanded programme on immunization. D Please fll up accordingly and tick (√) where applicable in the corresponding box before going to the clinic. Sila isikan di mana yang berkenaan dan tandakan (√) di kotak yang bersesuaian sebelum pergi ke klinik. YesYa NoTidak We would like to invite you to participate in this study to improve cold chain maintenance for vaccines. All information Date obtained consent(ddmmyyyy) obtained will be kept strictly confdential. Lawat lagidalam masa 2 hari Re-visit with supervisor Document if consent was obtained during frst visit, or during re-visit. Lawatan susulan bersama penyelia D Catatkan samada persetujuan diperolehi semasa lawatan pertama atau ke-2. TotalJumlah MonthBulan YearTahun D Fill the boxes in terms of number of months/years. Monthbulan tahunYear Monthbulan tahunYear Monthbulan tahunYear Monthbulan tahunYear Monthbulan tahunYear 3. NoTidak NoTidak NoTidak NoTidak NoTidak Has anyone taught you how tostore vaccines? Please ask for hand phone of staff accompanying, if the person is not there when you called) I am calling regarding he Cold Chain Survey that my nurse conducted in your clinic yesterday. I would like to ask you some questions that will help me determine the quality of her work. Section A: Delivery of Intervention Package (Focus on the items given and not the content/knowledge of staff) What did my nurse give you? Dial thermometer (* Once they have completed their listing, then ask about the remainder items above) Section B: Delivery Verifcation of Audit I would now like to ask you about the audit process. Did she tell you what you should and should not keep in your vaccine refrigerator? They all formulate a research queston and atempt to fnd a soluton to health problems. Artcles in journals Standard journal artcle List the frst six authors followed by et al. Regulaton of intersttal excitatory amino acid concentratons afer cortcal contusion injury. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in partcipants with impaired glucose tolerance.
Even though fenﬂuramine can cause depression discount 3ml bimat with amex medicine lodge ks, in- terest arose in possible psychotherapeutic uses purchase bimat 3 ml with mastercard treatment junctional rhythm. As the twenty-ﬁrst century began order bimat us symptoms 0f parkinsons disease, experimenters reported that fen-phen can ease withdrawal from co- caine. Rat experiments ﬁnd that fen-phen reduces alcohol intake and elimi- nates alcohol withdrawal symptoms, ﬁndings that may be relevant to treatment of alcoholism. Indeed in 1995 one medical practitioner reported suc- cess in treating alcohol and cocaine addicts with fen-phen, sometimes substi- tuting pemoline for phentermine. Experimenters who gave fenﬂuramine to pregnant mice found no measurable effect on fetal development and no effect on offspring’s ability to perform in learning tests. For primates evidence exists that the drug passes into the fetus and reaches high levels there. Studies comparing the two drugs ﬁnd little or no difference in effect, although dexfenﬂuramine was introduced with the hope that it had fewer unwanted actions than fenﬂuramine when used for weight loss. A re- port praising dexfenﬂuramine characterized its weight loss capability as equal- ing that produced by the antidepressant ﬂuoxetine (Prozac) or by a combination of ephedrine and caffeine. Diarrhea is noted as a dexfenﬂura- mine effect, and concern arose that the drug can aggravate glaucoma. De- pending on laboratory manipulations of circumstances, it can promote or diminish panic attacks. Developed in Europe during the 1950s, this drug became available for medical use in the United States during the 1960s. Depending on means of administration (injec- tion, oral) fentanyl can be 10 times stronger than morphine, and fentanyl citrate can be 8 to 100 times stronger. With cancer, the drug is normally given only when a patient is dying and unable to experience enough pain control from other opioids. Fentanyl does not necessarily reduce the amount of pain per se but can make people less aware of discomfort. Fentanyl can alter a person’s spirits, making some- one euphoric or provoking an opposite feeling of sadness and discontent. One dosage format is the fentanyl patch, allowing the drug to be absorbed through the skin. Patches are potent enough in themselves, but a case report tells of one drug abuser who decided to heat a patch and inhale the vapor; he instantly lost consciousness, but prompt attention by skilled medical personnel saved his life. Fentanyl may cause serious and even fatal breathing difﬁculty, and this problem can still arise after the drug’s action has apparently lifted. Risk of that unwanted effect is heightened among “opioid naive” patients who have not developed tolerance to pain relief from other opioids; so because of the Fentanyl 165 breathing hazard those opioid-naive patients often do not receive fentanyl. Nonetheless, it is sometimes used for childbirth, surgery, and dentistry and for persons suffering from lower back ache and pain in bones and joints. The drug can promote sleepiness and slow a person’s pulse rate, alertness, and physical motions. Other unwanted actions include itching, constipation, urine retention, nausea and vomiting, increased blood pressure, and fainting upon standing up. Laboratory tests suggest fentanyl might worsen a body chemistry disease called por- phyria. A drastic treatment for seizures is surgical removal of a brain lobe where seizures orig- inate, and instrument readings during the operation guide surgeons on how much of the brain to remove. Fentanyl is a standard surgical anesthetic, and one study found that the drug can temporarily create seizures in healthy por- tions of the brain, thereby misleading surgeons about how much they should remove. Like many other drugs, fentanyl has stronger effects on older persons, and dosage should be adjusted accordingly. Just three days of medical dosing can produce enough dependence to cause uncomfortable withdrawal upon sudden stoppage of the drug, an exceptionally short time compared to most opioids. Animal experi- ments indicate that buprenorphine can alleviate fentanyl withdrawal. For the same reason, using fentanyl with other depressants (including alcohol) can be risky. Whether fentanyl causes cancer is unknown, although laboratory tests with one version of the drug yielded no indication of cancer-causing potential. Rats receiving fentanyl have lower fertility rates and bring fewer pregnancies to term, compared to rats not receiving the drug, and those effects occurred at smaller doses than humans typically receive. When fentanyl citrate has been given to pregnant rats, birth defects in their offspring have not been attributed to the drug. The drug passes into a nursing mother’s milk but not in amounts deemed harmful to an infant. It is 50 to 100 times stronger than morphine and is used to knock out wild animals. Sufentanil can lower heart rate and blood pressure, create muscle rigidity, and cause typical unwanted opioid effects such as itching and vomiting. At normal doses su- fentanil can halt breathing, so medical personnel stand by to provide respi- ration assistance when they administer the drug. Researchers examining the results when sufentanil is used in childbirth found no harm to mother or infant. Sufentanil is assumed to pass into the milk of nursing mothers, but the amount is as- sumed harmless to the infant. They are used illicitly to experience heroin sensations and can be 1,000 times stronger than heroin. This quick-acting and long-lasting drug is widely used around the world for legitimate medical purposes. Flunitrazepam is prescribed to treat insomnia and anxiety, to relax muscles, to stop convulsions, and to calm peo- ple. In the 1990s it was Western Europe’s most commonly prescribed calming and sleep-inducing medicine. The drug is administered to treat alcohol with- drawal syndrome, and experimental use in treating depression has found ﬂu- nitrazepam promising. Some unauthorized use of the drug is believed to be for self-medication of depression and low self-esteem. The drug has special- ized usefulness in surgery as a medication given prior to administration of anesthesia, and its tendency to reduce pressure inside the eyeball can avert the rise caused by the anesthetic succinylcholine (important if patients are at risk for glaucoma). In hospice care where doses can be higher and more fre- quent than normal, ﬂunitrazepam has reduced nausea and vomiting from can- cer chemotherapy. Actions are similar to those of diazepam, but ﬂunitrazepam is 7 to 10 times stronger. Nonetheless, compared to other benzodiazepine class drugs an over- dose of ﬂunitrazepam does not seem more poisonous, nor does ﬂunitrazepam appear more prone to cause medical crises.