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Amino acids present in the hydrolysate of leaves were detected by one dimensional paper and thin layer chromatography comparing with 12 standard amino acids and the standard amino acid mixture order remeron overnight symptoms menopause. According to the result buy cheap remeron 15mg online medications 73, 9 amino acids such as lysine discount remeron 15mg with visa symptoms zoloft dosage too high, aspartic acid, serine, glycine, glutamic acid, threonine, alanine, methionine and leucine were present. Antimicrobial activity of the 70% ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves were tested against thirty microorganisms by using paper disc diffusion method and was found the aqueous extract was more effective than ethanolic extract. After oral administration of ethanolic extract (3g/kg) body weight, a significant inhibition of blood glucose level at 1hr, 2hr and 3 hr were observed when compared with that of that of a control group. After administration of aqueous extract (3g/kg) body weight, it caused a significant inhibition of blood glucose level at 1hr, 2hr, 3hr and 4hr which were almost the same with that of glibenclamide administration. The percentage inhibition of blood glucose level of ethanolic extract was shown to be significantly increased only at 2hr after administration of drugs when compared with that of glibenclamide. Aqueous extract could significantly reduced glucose level when compared with that of ethanolic extract. So, this phytochemical investigation was conducted to discover some new compounds from this plant. The morphological and histological characters of this plant have been studied and identified by using available literatures from Botany Department of Yangon University. Fruits colours are white in young stage, red in mature and purplish-black when ripe. The distinct histological characters of roots were xylem exarch and polyarch in primary root, oil cells and starch grains were present in phelloderm of secondary root. The cells of upper and lower surfaces of lamina were wavy and anomocytic types of stomata were present on the lower surface. Calcium oxalate crystals were present in mesophyll tissues of lamina and parenchymatous cells of midrib and petiole. Angular collenchyma and parenchymatous cells were present in mesocap of the fruits. The testa of seeds was composed of brachy sclereids and tegmen was parenchymatous cells. The qualitative analyses showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoid, glycoside, phenolic compound, saponin, starch, terpenoid, steroid, reducing sugar and tannins. Nutritioinal analyses of the powdered root was conducted and found that carbohydrate, protein, vitamin B1, vitamin C, fat and fibre were present. Various solvent extracts and compounds A and B were tested against six microorganisms for their antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion method. It was found that acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts were more effective than compounds A and B. But the isolated compounds were effective than petroleum- ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water extracts. The acute toxicity of aqueous extract and 70% ethanolic extract from roots of Carissa carandas L. It was observed that aqueous and ethanolic were free from acute toxicity or harmful effect during observation period of 14-days even with maximum permissible dose of 24g/kg. In anthelmintic activity, aqueous extracts was found to be more effective than ethanolic extracts. In the former method, ethanolic extract showed the antioxidant activity up to dry matter amount 25µg (Conc. But the latter showed that the ethanolic extract from the roots of this plant was found to be significant as the ascorbic acid. According to the morphological characters present in the vegetative and reproductive parts of the plants, it has been identified by using available literature. The microscopical characters of fresh leaves, culms, roots and the dried powder of the whole plant were examined to ascertain its identification. The bulliform or motor cells and two types of vascular bundles are observed in tranverse section of lamina. The vascular bundles are scattered, except in the center of the culm in tranverse section. The whole plant powder of this plant was tested to determine the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical properties. Tanins and cyanogenic glycosides were found to be absent and carbohydrate, starch, α-amino acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides and reducing sugar were present. Moisture, protein, fat, ash, fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin C and vitamin B1 were also investigated and found to be the constituents of the whole plant. Accordingly, two compounds were detected, one was assumed to be vitex and the other saponarin. The antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of the whole plant and the isolated compounds were tested against different microorganism by agar-well diffusion method. The acetone extract was found to show the best activity and none in aqueous extract on all tested microorganisms. Compound A (vitexin) showed the activity on all tested microorganisms but compound B (saponarin) did not show any activity against Staphylococcus aureus. So, the results provided much useful information for the development of the traditional medicine from natural products. This plant has found to be applied in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The 70% ethanolic extract of this plant was tested for antipyretic activity on yeast induced pyrexia in albino rats. The antipyretic activity of 70% ethanolic extract was compared with standard drug paracetamol. Phytochemical study on the Myanmar Momordica species, the isolation of hypoglycemic Charantin and their antibacterial activities. A phytochemical study had been undertaken out on the four speices and a variety of the genus Momordica of the family Cucurbitaceae, out of which some pharmacological study was made on Momordica charantia L. In the pharmacological study the effect of antidiabetes was tested with ethanolic extract and fresh juice of leaves of Momordica charantia L. The antibacterial activities were undertaken by testing with various crude extracts of the leaves and fruits of Momordica chrantia L. Thu-young root (identification as Talinum cuneifolium) was collected from the Southern Shan State. The local people believe that it possesses adaptogenic properties like Panax ginseng. The chemical investigation was carried out and the separated products identified qualitatively. The petroleum ether extract contains triglycerides, hydrocarbon waxes and a trace of sterol or triterpene. Alcohol soluble portion contains an acid insoluble in water and which is found to be either a steroid or triterpene in nature, potassium nitrate, reducing sugars and a coloured mother liquor which gives a positive glycoside test.
This role is likely to expand in the future order remeron 15mg free shipping symptoms torn meniscus, and the principles of independent assessment purchase remeron 15mg visa medications hyperthyroidism, documentation purchase 15 mg remeron otc treatment anemia, and interpretation are, as with other 150 Payne-James et al. Introduction The term bite mark has been described as “a mark caused by the teeth alone, or teeth in combination with other mouth parts” (10). Recog- nition, recording, analysis, and interpretation of these injuries are the most intriguing challenges in forensic dentistry. Biting can establish that there has been contact between two people—the teeth being used for offense or defense. When individual tooth characteristics and traits are present in the dentition of the biter and are recorded in the biting injury, the forensic significance of the bite mark is greatly increased. Early involvement of the forensically trained dentist, with experience in biting injuries, is essential to ensure that all dental evidence from both the victim and any potential suspect(s) is appropriately collected, preserved, and evaluated. There may be insufficient evidence to enable comparisons to be made with the biting edges of the teeth of any par- ticular person, but, if the injury can be identified as a human bite mark, it may still be significant to the investigation. It is important that the forensic dentist discusses with investigators the evidential value of the bite mark to enable resources to be wisely used. Clearly, conclusions and opinions expressed by the forensic dentist often lead him or her into the role of the expert witness subject to rigorous examination in court. The forensic physician will mostly be involved with biting injuries to human skin and any secondary consequences, including infection and disease transmission, but should be aware that bites in foodstuffs and other materials may be present at a crime scene and be easily overlooked. It is essential that a human bite can be distinguished from an animal bite, thus exonerating (or incriminating) the dog or cat next door. The following sections will consider issues surrounding bites to human skin caused by another human. Early rec- ognition of a patterned injury (suspected of being caused by biting) by medi- cal personnel, social services, and other investigating agencies is extremely important; the injury may be the only physical evidence and must not be lost. Ideally, the forensic dentist should be contacted sooner rather than later when a possible biting injury is discovered to ensure that all evidence is collected appropriately. All too often the dentist is brought in at a later date, when there has been incorrect recording of the bite mark and the injury is partly healed and distorted or fully healed and no longer visible. Reliance may then have to be placed on ultraviolet photography to demonstrate the “lost” injury (11). Injury Assessment 151 Bites can be found on the victim or the assailant (living, deceased, child, or adult). It is well known that biting is often a feature in nonaccidental injury to children (see Chapter 5). If a bite mark is found on an anatomical site that is accessible to the victim, it becomes necessary to exclude him or her from the investigation. If the answer to the first question is “don’t know,” “possibly,” or “yes,” then request the assistance of the forensic dentist. Ensure that swabs are taken from the injured site (with controls) and photographs should be taken. Make sure that you know which forensic dentists are available in your area; this will prevent delays and frustration. You will need to know whether your local forensic dentist has experience and training in bite mark-analysis or whether he or she focuses mainly on identifications. The forensic dentist will examine the suspected biting injury and con- sider the following: • Whether the injury is oval or round. However, note that a mark from only one arch does not mean that it is not a biting injury. Characteristics, such as tooth size, shape, displacement, rotations, wear facets, etc. Differential Diagnosis It is important to remember that other injuries can mimic bite marks. The following have all been queried as biting injuries: • Dermatological conditions. In a single bite mark, one or any combination of several or all of these components may be present, and they may be discrete or superimposed. However, the complex situation may become even more complicated when there are multiple bite marks at a single location where they may overlap as a result of the biter trying to get a better “grip;” all this leads to interpretation difficulties. In attempting to get answers to these questions, a clearer picture of the incident may develop. Anatomical Distribution of Bitten Sites It can be seen from the anatomical distribution of the bite marks studied by the author (see Fig. This graph does not distinguish between male and female, child or adult, or whether there were multiple bites to one person, but serves purely to illustrate that it is essential for medical personnel to thoroughly examine the body for biting injuries and carefully document the findings. Record the anatomical location and nature of the injury and its size, shape, and color. In many cases, there are multiple bite marks on the body, some that the victim may not be aware of or recall. Mul- tiple bite marks on the body, produced by the same perpetrator, may vary Fig. Anatomical distribution of last 110 bite marks studied by the author (Hinchliffe). In short, do not jump to the conclusion that there are multiple biters or vice-versa. Nor should it be assumed that a small biting injury has been caused by a child; it may be an incomplete adult bite. If the marks on the skin can be identified as being made by the smaller deciduous (baby) teeth, it would suggest the mark has been inflicted by a young child. Evidence Collection As soon as it has been established that the injury has been caused by biting, the injury should be photographed and swabbed for saliva. In addition, it may be necessary to take an impression of the injured site to preserve any possible indentations. Clearly, the taking of forensic samples is not always possible when the injured party needs urgent medical attention. Often, the forensic dentist is provided with photographs taken some time after the inci- dent date and after medical intervention (see Fig. Saliva Saliva is deposited on the skin (and clothing, if present) during biting and sucking. The saliva swabs (with controls) must be clearly and correctly labeled and stored appropriately (see Chapter 3). Oral saliva samples will be needed from any potential suspect, and the victim of an assault if there is a possibility that the victim bit the assailant (or self-infliction is suspected). It is essential for correct photographic procedures to be followed to minimize dis- tortions. Police photographers experienced in crime scene and other injury pho- tography may still find the assistance of the forensic dentist useful, because Injury Assessment 155 Fig. Skin is not the best impression material, and various papers and reports have shown the importance of photographing the victim in the same position as when bitten in an attempt to minimize distortion (15,16). Changes in the injury with time (in both the living and the deceased) may mean that the injury pattern appears clearer after a day or two. There is no reliable way of knowing when an injury will reveal the most detail, and, therefore, repeat photography (e.
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In the physical examination order remeron 30 mg with mastercard treatment uveitis, it is important to look for clues that may point to the cause of chronic fatigue order discount remeron medicinenetcom symptoms. For example order remeron 15 mg with amex medicine technology, swollen lymph nodes may indicate a chronic infection, and the presence of a diagonal crease on both earlobes usually indicates impaired blood ﬂow to the brain, a signiﬁcant cause of fatigue in the elderly. Therapeutic Considerations Because chronic fatigue is generally a multifactorial condition, the therapeutic approach typically involves multiple therapies that address different facets of the disease. A person’s energy level, as well as his or her emotional state, is determined by an interplay between two primary factors— internal focus and physiology. They repeatedly reafﬁrm their fatigue to themselves and to anyone who will listen. Their physiology includes not only the chemicals and hormones circulating in the body but also the way they hold their bodies (usually slouched) and the way they breathe (shallowly). In most patients with chronic fatigue, both the mind and the body must be addressed. The most effective treatment is a comprehensive program designed to help people use their mind, attitudes, and physiology to fuel higher energy levels. Lifestyle Practices Associated with Higher Natural Killer Cell Activity Not smoking Increased intake of green vegetables Regular meals Proper body weight More than seven hours of sleep a night Regular exercise A vegetarian diet Depression The mind and attitude play a critical role in determining the status of the immune system and energy levels. Of course, it is not easy to have much enthusiasm when you do not have much energy, but the two usually go hand in hand. In the absence of a preexisting physical condition, depression is generally regarded as the most common cause of chronic fatigue. However, it is often difﬁcult to determine whether the depression preceded the fatigue or vice versa. In order to achieve a positive mind-set, a person must exercise or condition the attitude, much as one would condition the body. Mental exercises such as visualizations, goal setting, affirmations, and empowering questions, as detailed in the chapter “A Positive Mental Attitude,” should be performed every day. Stress can be an underlying factor in patients with depression, low immune function, or another cause of chronic fatigue. The adrenal glands are very much involved in the body’s energy level and ability to deal with stress. Low adrenal function and adrenal exhaustion were ﬁrst proposed as causes of chronic fatigue more than 50 years ago. In particular, suspect insufﬁcient cortisol when a stressful event is followed by feverishness, joint and muscle pain, swollen lymph glands, post-exertional fatigue, worsening of allergic responses, and disturbances of mood and sleep (i. In one of these studies, 52% of patients reported a reduction in symptoms after 10 weeks. In fact, as far back as 1930, chronic fatigue was recognized as a key feature of food allergies. Around the 1950s, this syndrome began to be referred to as the “allergic tension-fatigue syndrome. Diet Energy levels appear to be directly related to the quality of foods routinely ingested. Although occasional use of caffeine can give you a boost, regular caffeine intake may actually lead to chronic fatigue. Mice fed one dose of caffeine demonstrated signiﬁcant increases in their swimming capacity, but when the dose of caffeine was given repeatedly for six weeks, a signiﬁcant decrease in the mice’s swimming capacity was observed. Another interesting ﬁnding is that the degree of fatigue experienced is often related to the quantity of caffeine ingested. In one survey of hospitalized psychiatric patients, 61% of those ingesting at least 750 mg per day of caffeine (the amount found in about ﬁve cups of coffee) complained of fatigue, compared with 54% of those ingesting 250 to 749 mg per day and only 24% of those ingesting less than 250 mg per day. In patients who routinely drink coffee, abrupt cessation of coffee drinking will probably result in symptoms of caffeine withdrawal, including fatigue, headache, and an intense desire for coffee. A deﬁciency of virtually any nutrient can produce the symptoms of fatigue as well as render the body more susceptible to infection. Individuals with chronic fatigue require, at the bare minimum, a high-potency multiple vitamin and mineral formula along with extra vitamin C (1,000–3,000 mg per day in divided doses) and magnesium (500 to 1,200 mg per day in divided doses). The literature demonstrates that magnesium deﬁciency is not necessarily due to low dietary intake,29 and several studies have shown good results with supplementation with improvements in magnesium stores. At the end of the study, 12 of the 15 patients receiving magnesium reported, on the basis of strict criteria, signiﬁcantly improved energy levels, improved emotional state, and less pain. In contrast, only 3 of the 17 placebo patients reported that they felt better and only 1 reported improved energy levels. Between 75 and 91% of the nearly 3,000 patients studied experienced relief of fatigue during treatment with the magnesium and potassium aspartate. In contrast, the proportion of patients responding to a placebo was between 9 and 26%. The beneﬁcial effect was usually noted after only 4 to 5 days, but sometimes it took as long as 10 days to achieve results. Patients usually continued treatment for four to six weeks; afterward, fatigue frequently did not return. Aspartate feeds into the Krebs cycle, the ﬁnal common pathway for the conversion of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to chemical energy, while citrate is itself a component of the Krebs cycle. Krebs cycle components (including aspartate, citrate, fumarate, malate, and succinate) usually provide a better mineral chelate: evidence suggests that these chelates are better absorbed, used, and tolerated compared with inorganic or relatively insoluble mineral salts (such as magnesium chloride, oxide, or carbonate). Amantadine was poorly tolerated and produced no statistically signiﬁcant difference in any of the clinical indicators. With carnitine, there was a statistically signiﬁcant clinical improvement in 12 of the 18 studied indicators after eight weeks of treatment, with none of the clinical indicators showing any deterioration. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) CoQ10 also plays a role in mitochondrial function and acts as an essential cofactor for the cellular production of energy. Exercise Exercise alone has been demonstrated to have a tremendous impact on mood and the ability to handle stressful life situations. One study found that immune function was signiﬁcantly increased by the practice of tai chi exercises. Gradual increases in exercise intensity (for example, begin with gradual walking and weight exercises and increase duration and intensity over time as is comfortable) may be the best approach. Most notable are adaptogens such as Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng), Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus), rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea), and ashwaganda (Withania somnifera). The adaptogenic effects of these herbs were discussed in the chapter “Stress Management. Siberian Ginseng In addition to supporting adrenal function and acting as a nonspeciﬁc adaptogen, Siberian ginseng (E. In one double-blind study, 36 healthy subjects received either 10 ml of a ﬂuid extract of Siberian ginseng or a placebo per day for four weeks. Rhodiola rosea Rhodiola rosea (Arctic root) is a popular plant in traditional medical systems in Eastern Europe and Asia, where it has traditionally been recommended to help combat fatigue and restore energy.
Oral medica- the left lateral pendulous crop to ensure that the tions are mostly ineffective because of slow passage incision is not damaged should the bird require tube- into the intestinal tract buy 15 mg remeron mastercard symptoms ketosis. The incision is closed in two layers using a ever order 30 mg remeron with mastercard medications peripheral neuropathy, may be beneficial in cases of bacterial over- 6-0 absorbable suture cheap remeron american express medications elavil side effects. Postoperative feedings should growth because they act locally with minimal absorp- be small and frequent, beginning with clear liquids tion or side-effects. Parenteral feeding or placement and gradually increasing the strength and amount of of a duodenal feeding tube should be considered in formula over the next 24 to 48 hours until a normal critically ill birds (see Chapter 41). Budgerigars with goiter often present with crop sta- If a crop foreign body cannot be palpated, food and sis and a history of regurgitation due to pressure of water should be withheld until the crop is empty or the enlarged thyroid glands on the caudal esophagus. Usually it is These birds may also have a squeaky voice or an difficult to empty the crop via gavage tube because audible click with each respiration; tachypnea and crop contents tend to become thickened when the tail-bob may be present. Some clinicians hold the bird upside on clinical signs and history of an iodine-deficient down and express the crop contents. These birds should be hospitalized for paren- believe that this technique in unanesthetized pa- teral fluids, steroids, antibiotics and iodine therapy. Occasionally a bird may not respond to procedure to prevent reflux from entering the nasal standard therapy, and thyroid gland neoplasia passages. This can be done two to four times The distinction between regurgitation and vomiting daily if the bird can tolerate the handling. Regurgitation to a “mate” (often the owner) or mirror Radiographs and a barium series are indicated if is a normal part of breeding behavior; this is seen impaction or extraluminal obstruction is suspected, most commonly in budgerigars and cockatiels but can particularly in adult birds. A clinical history that the crop contents should be removed and the anes- includes intermittent regurgitation when the bird is thetized bird should be held upright until the esopha- being handled or talked to will help differentiate this gus can be packed with moist gauze. Pa- over the cranial esophagus will help prevent reflux thologic regurgitation in birds is caused by primary from entering the pharyngeal area. Metabo- Samples can be collected by crop lavage or by passing lic problems include hepatic and renal disease (see a flexible swab directly into the crop. Toxins that may cause vomiting include sensitivity of the crop contents and feces are indi- ingestion of some plants, pesticides and heavy metals cated if bacterial infection is suspected. Some birds will regurgitate from blood glucose determination is important if the bird stress or from motion sickness (such as during a car is weak. Hematochezia may be present with disease tion, a sign of regurgitation is finding food caked on of the colon or cloaca. A bird will bleeding before aggressive and unnecessary therapy often shake its head when regurgitating, depositing is instigated. The bird prolapsing it gently with a well lubricated cotton should be evaluated for hydration, and the crop and swab (Figure 15. The presence of yellow or green abdomen should be palpated for distension or the urates suggests involvement of the liver. Goiter is the pink, red or rust-colored urates are seen most com- most common pathologic cause of regurgitation in monly with acute heavy metal toxicity, particularly budgerigars over two years of age. Fecal examination by wet mount The database for diarrhea includes fecal examination and Gram’s stain is often informative also. Initial stabilization of the regurgitating patient in- Parenteral fluids should be administered to meet volves parenteral fluid therapy, removal of foreign maintenance levels and replace estimated fluid vol- bodies or toxins, specific toxin antidotes and appro- ume lost to diarrhea. Debilitated birds may benefit priate antimicrobials if bacterial or fungal infections from intravenous or intraosseous fluids and one dose are suspected. Parenteral admini- hexidine reduces local bacterial levels in cases of stration of a bacteriocidal antibiotic with a broad ingluvitis. Diarrhea in birds is clinically recognized by un- formed feces, often in association with an increase in Cloacal Prolapse the fluid portion of the dropping (see Color 8). Stools Prolapse of the cloacal mucosa is associated with may “normally” be loose from stress, excitement, masses within the cloaca, neurogenic problems or over-consumption of dairy products and ingestion of conditions causing tenesmus (eg, enteritis, cloacitis foods with a high water content (vegetables and or egg-binding). Pathologic diarrhea usually results from bac- terial, viral, fungal, chlamydial or parasitic gastroen- A prolapsed cloaca may not be immediately apparent teritis. Abdominal palpa- tient with diarrhea includes gram-negative enteritis, tion for a mass and checking for prolapse of the hep-atopathy, chlamydial infection and heavy metal ureters or uterus should be a priority during the toxicity. An Physical examination of the bird with diarrhea irregular, “raspberry-like” appearance of the mucosa should begin with careful evaluation of the hydration suggests cloacal papillomatosis (see Color 19). Melena may be noted with problems of the the bird relaxed under isoflurane anesthesia. It is important to treat any possible underlying cause of pro- lapse such as hypocalcemia or other nutritional or metabolic problems. Liver Disease As in mammals, liver disease is often difficult to diagnose and characterize in birds (see Chapter 20). Clinical signs of hepatitis are often nonspe- cific, including lethargy, inappe- tence, polyuria, polydipsia, diarrhea and ascites. The presence of yellow or green urates is an indicator of probable liver disease (see Color 8). On physical ble or, particularly in passerine examination, an accumulation of excrement was noted in the pericloacal area and on the birds, may be visible through the tail feathers. A tentative diagnosis of papillomatosis was made by identifying small, pink nodules on the cloacal mucosa (courtesy of Elizabeth Hillyer). The basic database for suspected hepatitis includes a complete blood ual massage of the caudal abdominal and cloacal count, serum biochemistry profile, bile acids, fecal regions promotes fecal evacuation. Parenteral fluid Gram’s stain, fecal culture, cytology of the abdominal therapy and treatment for septic shock should be fluid, whole body radiographs and chlamydial test- used in these cases. A complete examination of the cloacal area must be While laboratory tests are pending, treatment for performed. In larger birds, a vaginal speculum and suspected liver disease includes basic supportive strong light source permit examination deep into the care, broad-spectrum antibiotics, oral lactulose and cloacal region. Doxycy- fecal wet mount, Gram’s stain, culture and radio- cline is the drug of choice for chlamydiosis. If cloacal papillomatosis is suspected, tissue dazole, cephalosporins and the penicillins are the excision with biopsy is necessary to confirm the diag- antibacterials of choice for small mammal hepatic nosis. Investigations to determine the best anti- not require a purse-string suture preoperatively. Solitary tumors should Primary pancreatitis is seldom diagnosed in birds, be biopsied by excision if possible. The tissues should be flushed with Acute pancreatic necrosis in an Umbrella Cockatoo38 saline and covered with a sterile lubricating jelly or and pancreatic atrophy in a Blue and Gold Macaw40 ointment. The underlying cause was not depending on the individual bird and the clinician’s found in these two birds; however, it was speculated preferences. Retention sutures may complicate the that obesity and a high-fat diet contributed to disease prolapse by exacerbating straining and should be in the cockatoo.