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It is important to distinguish between these entities because the clinical implications and medical– surgical management of each process differs substantially (see Table 80 thyroxine 125mcg fast delivery treatment urticaria. Radiographic findings in a typical case of emphysematous pyelonephritis (usually caused by enteric bacteria buy thyroxine 25mcg without prescription administering medications 7th edition answers, not Clostridium spp buy thyroxine with a mastercard facial treatment. The urinalysis often shows positive “dipstick” results for leukocyte esterase and nitrite, markers for leukocytes and enteric bacteria. Gram-negative rods in the urine are readily identifiable and this confirms the presence of significant bacteriuria. Urinary Gram stain can also detect gram-positive microorganisms such as enterococci and staphylococci, and fungal elements. The urine culture confirms the diagnosis and defines the most appropriate antimicrobial agent for treatment. The progressive increase of antimicrobial resistance makes it imperative to carefully select antimicrobial agents based on susceptibility 5 patterns of the infecting microorganism. Urine cultures may be negative in more than 40% of patients with perinephric abscess, and most patients with renal cortical abscesses have urinalyses without significant bacteriuria . Complete unilateral urinary obstruction associated with pyonephrosis can fail to show the primary pathogen within voided urine. In a recent survey voided urine specimens taken at the time of stent removal were negative in the presence of microbial colonization in 40% of the patients . Urine cultures should also be performed from nephrostomy tube drainage in patients with prior urinary diversion procedures. Renal ultrasound provides another rapid method of detecting hydronephrosis and anatomic detail of the renal parenchyma. Ultrasound can image the kidney on any plane and may be performed urgently in the absence of intravenous contrast media. These nuclear medicine studies assist in the differentiation between a renal neoplasm and a focal inflammatory process of the kidney. These studies are useful for the evaluation of patients with fever of unknown origin secondary to perinephric abscess or renal cortical abscess . Medical management initially consists of stabilization of the patient’s hemodynamic parameters and supportive measures in the management of septic shock. After the completion of appropriate diagnostic studies, empiric antimicrobial therapy should be directed toward the most likely infecting urinary pathogen(s). A urinary Gram stain usually provides evidence of either a gram-negative or gram- positive bacterial pathogen. If this is unavailable or nondiagnostic, then broad-spectrum, empiric antimicrobial therapy is indicated. The β-lactam–aminoglycoside combination supplies optimal therapy for systemic infections with enteric gram- negative bacilli, enterococci, and nonfermentative, multiresistant, gram- negative bacterial pathogens. Severely ill septic patients who are immunocompromised also warrant combination antimicrobial therapy . Increasingly, the therapeutic trend in empiric therapy is away from aminoglycosides to monotherapy with β-lactams alone, β-lactam–β- lactamase inhibitors, and/or fluoroquinolones . Should the urinary Gram stain exclude enterococci as a potential pathogen, then single therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, extended-spectrum penicillin, carbapenem (e. Local susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens should guide the selection of antimicrobial therapy until specific susceptibility data are available. A single antimicrobial agent known to be active against the infecting uropathogen should be employed once the causative organism is known. Parenteral therapy is generally administered until the patient has been rendered nontoxic and afebrile for 24 to 48 hours. Therapy may then be administered orally and should be given for a total of approximately 2 weeks [32,33]. Both of these new agents are β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combinations: ceftolozone–tazobactam  and ceftazidime–avibactam . Although this regimen remains active against most enterococcal isolates, progressive antimicrobial resistance to aminoglycosides, ampicillin, and other β lactams and vancomycin has complicated the antimicrobial therapy for enterococcal infections . Rare strains of β-lactamase–producing enterococci are susceptible to β- lactam inhibitors such as ampicillin/sulbactam or piperacillin/tazobactam. High-level aminoglycoside-resistant strains of enterococci are problematic, as the addition of an aminoglycoside no longer contributes to synergistic clearance of these infections. Glycopeptide-resistant strains of enterococci pose a serious threat to the antimicrobial management of enterococcal infections. Newer fluoroquinolones occasionally have activity against enterococci and may be useful in the treatment of glycopeptide- and β-lactam–resistant strains of enterococci. Linezolid, an oxazolidinone that inhibits the initiation of translation at the 30S ribosome of bacteria, has activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci . Antistaphylococcal penicillins such as nafcillin or oxacillin are indicated for the empiric therapy of renal cortical abscesses (renal carbuncle). Vancomycin should be instituted if there is a suspicion of the presence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates in a patient with a cortical abscess or perinephric abscess. Open surgical drainage is reserved for patients who fail to respond to attempted percutaneous drainage. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should generally not be treated whether an indwelling urinary catheter is present or not. The estimated risk of bacteriuria after urinary tract catheterization is approximately 5% for each day of catheterization. Trauma produced by an indwelling catheter may damage the bladder mucosa and the mucous layer that coats uroepithelial cells . Additionally, temporary obstruction of urine flow caused by kinking or clamping of the urinary catheter can lead to bladder distension, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection. Bacteria gain access to the urinary tract of catheterized patients by one of three mechanisms: (1) during insertion, (2) along the external surface after insertion, or (3) via the inner lumen of the urinary catheter. Implantation of bacteria into the bladder during catheter placement occurs at a frequency of approximately 0. This risk varies with the experience of the health care worker placing the catheter and with the level of periurethral colonization by potential uropathogens. Optimal catheter design includes a sterile sampling port that obviates the need to open the system to collect urine samples. The collecting bag should have a large reservoir with a device to measure urine output with minimal manipulation of the catheter system. The periurethral space becomes colonized with enteric organisms, which then migrate along the periurethral mucous sheath that surrounds the surface of the catheter. Continued movement of the catheter in and out of the urinary bladder occurs upon repositioning of the patient or catheter manipulations. This process provides ample opportunity for organisms coating the catheter surface to gain access to the urinary bladder and cause infection. The urinary catheter becomes an ecologic niche for these organisms, resulting in prolonged infections that may persist for months in the catheterized patient .
This is then followed by warming cheap thyroxine uk medications when pregnant, separation from bypass buy thyroxine 100 mcg on line medicine quinine, and finally stent-graft deployment through the 4th limb of the graft discount thyroxine 75 mcg online medications xarelto. However, the evolution of intracoronary stents has enabled interventional cardiologists to treat coronary stenoses percutaneously with early results approaching those of surgical bypass procedures. This has had an impact on the number and types of patients who are referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. Therefore, our surgical patients are now generally older, have more comorbid conditions, and more severe left ventricular dysfunction, and many have had previous catheter-based interventions. To handle this group of patients, surgeons need to incorporate additional procedures into their practice, including off-pump surgery and transmyocardial laser revascularization, and pursue such strategies as angiogenic and cell-based technology. Ultimately, the goal in the operating room is to provide patients with grafts that have the best long-term patency. The in situ right internal thoracic artery has slightly lower patency compared with the in situ left internal thoracic artery. In younger patients, this is an excellent choice of graft to the ramus intermedius, proximal obtuse marginal coronary artery, or mid to distal right coronary artery. Right Coronary Artery Ischemia If the right coronary artery is dominant and of good size, the right internal thoracic artery flow may be inadequate. Sternal Complications Bilateral internal thoracic arteries should be avoided in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes because of increased sternal complications. Other arterial conduits have been used, including the inferior epigastric artery, gastroepiploic artery, and radial artery. The radial artery is now considered the second arterial conduit of choice (after internal thoracic arteries). One or both radial arteries can be used along with one or both internal thoracic arteries to provide complete arterial revascularization. The radial artery may be anastomosed proximally to the aorta, sewn in an end-to-side manner to an internal thoracic artery to create a Y graft, or sewn to the hood of a vein graft. The greater saphenous vein has been extensively used as a conduit because it can be quickly procured, is easy to handle, and ensures excellent inflow. Renewed enthusiasm for this graft has been generated by the development of less invasive endoscopic vein-harvesting techniques. The 10-year patency of greater saphenous vein grafts is 60% to 70%; however, this may be improved with the routine use of antiplatelet agents, cholesterol-lowering agents, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The parietal pleura and pericardium are depressed gently, and the course of the internal thoracic artery is identified from its origin near the first rib to its termination beyond its bifurcation in the rectus sheath. The posterior rectus sheath is freed from the undersurface of the sternum and costal cartilages, allowing more extensive retraction with improved exposure of the internal thoracic artery. This is more apt to occur in patients with pectus deformities or morbid obesity and in elderly patients with osteoporosis. Although it is possible to dissect the internal thoracic artery without entering the pleural cavity, we prefer to routinely open the left pleura widely to provide excellent exposure and greatly facilitate harvesting of the internal thoracic artery. Alternatively, the left internal thoracic artery can be harvested through a lower ministernotomy, dividing the left half of the sternum (see Chapter 1). A Favaloro retractor allows the left hemisternum to be elevated to provide adequate exposure for mobilizing the internal thoracic artery. The internal thoracic artery is usually harvested as a pedicle with extensive use of electrocautery for chest wall hemostasis but not pedicle hemostasis. The parietal pleura on the internal intercostal musculofascial layer of the chest wall is incised approximately 7 to 10 mm medial to the internal thoracic artery along its entire course. The lowest current is used to coagulate the internal thoracic artery and vein branches, well away from the parent trunks. The pedicle is dissected from the level of the rectus sheath to the level of the subclavian vein where the artery passes beneath this vessel. Care is taken to identify and divide two intercostal branches, one passing anterior to the subclavian vein and a high first intercostal branch coursing laterally above the subclavian vein. Injury to the Internal Thoracic Artery Because the internal thoracic artery is a delicate structure, any undue stretching, clamping, or misplaced metal clips results in permanent vascular injury and therefore unsatisfactory short- and long-term results. Excessive traction during mobilization should be avoided as it can lead to dissection of the vessel wall. Heat Injury When an electrocautery is used to divide the internal thoracic artery branches after application of metal clips, the heat and the electric current may conduct through the metal clip adjacent to the parent trunk and cause a burn injury. Therefore, branches must be divided with scissors or coagulated well away from the metal clip adjacent to the internal thoracic artery. Maximal Length of the Internal Thoracic Artery the internal thoracic artery pedicle must be dissected free from the chest wall along its entire course, from near its origin in the first intercostal space to well past its bifurcation into the rectus sheath to provide maximal length. Before commencing cardiopulmonary bypass, papaverine is sprayed gently over the pedicle and the adequacy of flow is determined. If there is no flow, a 1-mm vascular probe (Parsonnet) is cautiously introduced into the lumen of the vessel for a varying distance. Unless traumatized during harvesting, the internal thoracic artery usually provides adequate flow and should not be discarded. In elderly patients, it may be preferable to skeletonize the internal thoracic artery rather than harvesting it as a pedicle. The end of the pedicle is then grasped and occluded with forceps, allowing the internal thoracic artery to distend with blood. The artery is transected obliquely with the heel on the fascial side of the pedicle and prepared as a large-hood orifice. String Sign Excessive stretch and tension on the internal thoracic artery result in narrowing of the lumen and graft failure. Optimal Length of the Internal Thoracic Pedicle Before the distal end of the internal thoracic artery is divided, its correct length must be ascertained. The internal thoracic pedicle should lie very comfortably on the heart when it is full and the lungs are fully inflated; otherwise, the artery will be stretched and could become detached at the anastomotic site. Similarly, it should not be redundant because too long a pedicle may curl or kink into the substernal area, increasing the risk of injury at reoperation. The caliber of the internal thoracic artery is smaller and resistance to flow is higher the longer the pedicle is. Clot Formation within the Internal Thoracic Artery the internal thoracic artery, when fully mobilized and divided, is occluded with an atraumatic bulldog clamp after the patient has been fully heparinized to prevent any clotting within the lumen of the vessel. Incising the Pericardium for Bypass Grafting to the Circumflex Coronary Artery the pericardium is divided with electrocautery where the internal thoracic artery pedicle crosses it down to 1 cm above the left phrenic nerve. This allows the pedicle to assume a more lateral position and lie against the medial surface of the lung instead of coursing over the apex of the lung. This is especially important when the left internal thoracic artery is grafted to an obtuse marginal branch of the circumflex coronary artery.
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In adults purchase thyroxine with mastercard medicine gif, combined respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis is the most common finding (50% to 61%) buy thyroxine 75mcg lowest price medications removed by dialysis, followed by pure respiratory alkalosis (20% to 25%) generic 125 mcg thyroxine fast delivery medications requiring central line, pure metabolic acidosis (15% to 20%), and a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis (5%) [28,46]. Metabolic acidosis is more common and respiratory alkalosis more often absent in children than in adults [42,46] suggesting that children progress more rapidly from mild to severe poisoning, perhaps because of more rapid and extensive tissue distribution of drug . Metabolic acidosis is also more common in patients with large acute ingestions, chronic intoxication, and delayed presentation or treatment [28,42,43,46,59]. The onset and progression of toxicity may be delayed after overdose with enteric-coated or sustained-release formulations . Potential complications of both therapeutic and toxic doses of salicylate include gastrointestinal tract bleeding, increased prothrombin time, hepatic toxicity, pancreatitis, proteinuria, and abnormal urinary sediment. Significant bleeding, gastrointestinal tract perforation, blindness, and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone are rare complications of acute poisoning. Other Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs With the exception of mefenamic acid and phenylbutazone, significant toxicity from acute overdose is unusual and occurs following massive ingestion. Manifestations typically include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, confusion, tinnitus, drowsiness, and hyperventilation [5,60,61]. Symptoms rarely last more than several hours, and acute renal toxicity is almost always reversible over a period of a few days to weeks. Metabolic acidosis, coma, seizures, hepatic dysfunction, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse are relatively frequent after phenylbutazone overdose [60,61,64–66]. Uncommonly, coma, hyperactivity, hypothermia, seizures, metabolic acidosis, acute renal insufficiency, thrombocytopenia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, and respiratory depression are seen in ibuprofen poisoning [39,66–69]. Little correlation was found between the amount of ibuprofen reportedly ingested and symptoms in adults . In the pediatric population, however, the mean amount ingested was much greater in symptomatic patients (440 mg per kg) than asymptomatic ones (114 mg per kg) . Elderly patients are at increased risk of developing toxicity with both therapeutic doses and overdoses. Physical examination should focus on vital signs, neurologic and cardiopulmonary function, and assessment of the state of hydration. Vital signs should include an accurate temperature and respiratory rate and, if possible, orthostatic measurements of pulse and blood pressure. Patients with moderate-to-severe salicylate poisoning should also have serum calcium, magnesium, and ketones, liver function tests, coagulation profile, electrocardiogram, and chest radiograph. The ferric chloride spot test can be used to rapidly detect the presence of salicylate in urine or commercial products . A positive urine test indicates exposure but not overdose, because positive results are seen with therapeutic dosing. False-positive reactions may be caused by acetoacetic acid, phenylpyruvic acid, phenothiazines, and phenylbutazone. Diflunisal may result in falsely elevated serum salicylate levels when measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay or the Trinder colorimetric assay . At similar salicylate concentrations, patients with chronic poisoning tend to be more ill than those with acute poisoning [29,45,46]. Conversely, with chronic overdosage and late in the course of an acute overdose, moderate or severe toxicity may be present despite serum salicylate concentrations in or just above the high therapeutic range. At similar salicylate concentrations, children, the elderly, and those with underlying disease tend to be more ill than otherwise healthy adults [29,44,58,74]. Poisoning in such patients, particularly if chronic, can occasionally be seen with therapeutic salicylate levels. Hence, as noted previously, the severity of poisoning is ultimately determined by acid–base status and clinical findings. Serial salicylate levels are necessary for confirming the diagnosis and monitoring the efficacy of treatment, but do not obviate the need for continued clinical and metabolic monitoring. Depending on the severity and course of poisoning, drug levels and other laboratory tests should initially be repeated at 2-hour intervals. Because of delayed and erratic absorption, it is imperative to demonstrate a falling and near-zero salicylate concentration to exclude significant ongoing absorption after overdose, which generally requires at least 12 hours even in mild overdoses . These patients are typically elderly, have a variety of presenting complaints and underlying illnesses, and have been taking aspirin with therapeutic intent. To avoid missing the diagnosis, all patients should be asked specifically about the use of nonprescription drugs. Asking about tinnitus or hearing distortion, which occurs with salicylate levels in the high end of the therapeutic range (i. Occult salicylate poisoning should be considered in any patient with an unexplained acid–base disturbance, altered mental status, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, dyspnea, vomiting, or pulmonary edema [28,59]. Hemodynamic, autonomic, and laboratory manifestations of severe poisoning resemble the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and may be mistaken for sepsis [51,55,75]. Salicylate poisoning has also been misdiagnosed as alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, dementia, diabetic ketoacidosis, impending myocardial infarction, hepatic encephalopathy, and viral encephalitis. It may be particularly difficult to distinguish from Reye’s syndrome, because they are not only similar in presentation but appear to be interrelated [76,77]. Radiopaque densities in the stomach on abdominal radiograph suggest the possibility of an enteric-coated or sustained-release formulation or a magnesium or bismuth salt of salicylate. It is critically important to remember that, should endotracheal intubation be necessary, hyperventilation must be accomplished before, during, and after this procedure to prevent worsening acidemia, which increases the fraction of nonionized salicylic acid available for tissue distribution, thereby enhancing toxicity. The administration of respiratory depressants or failure to adequately hyperventilate unconscious or paralyzed patients can result in rapid deterioration and death of severely poisoned patients [52,56,78]. It is also prudent to administer sodium bicarbonate to patients who have seizures, as acidemia is likely to worsen. Hyperthermia should be treated with cooling blankets, ice packs, and evaporative methods (see Chapter 185). Central venous pressure monitoring may be necessary for optimal treatment of hypotension, especially if there is evidence of heart failure or pulmonary edema. Patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema should be treated with positive pressure ventilation rather than diuretics. Again, maintaining hyperventilation and reducing acidemia are critical in patients with compromised pulmonary function. The degree of dehydration parallels the severity of poisoning , but it is often unappreciated, underestimated, or undertreated. Patients with mild, moderate, or severe poisoning typically have volume deficits of 1 to 2, 3 to 4, or 5 to 6 L (20, 40, and 60 mL per kg in children), respectively. In the presence of acidemia, hypokalemia is more severe than indicated by the serum potassium level (by approximately 0. In addition, the goal of therapy is to limit the tissue distribution of salicylates by increasing the serum pH. The dose of bicarbonate needed may be substantial, and is typically 200 to 300 mEq in an adult with severe poisoning. Tetany should be treated with intravenous calcium chloride or calcium gluconate (10 mL of a 10% solution over 5 to 10 minutes). Fresh-frozen plasma, red blood cell, and platelet transfusions may be required for patients with active bleeding or significant blood loss. Gastrointestinal decontamination should be performed in all patients with intentional overdoses and those with accidental ingestions of greater than 150 mg per kg.
Thus purchase 200mcg thyroxine overnight delivery holistic medicine, aldosterone antagonists prevent Na reabsorption and purchase generic thyroxine from india medicine checker, therefore purchase 75 mcg thyroxine free shipping treatment definition math, K and H secretion. Actions Spironolactone and eplerenone antagonize aldosterone receptors at renal sites, which causes diuresis, and nonrenal sites, which causes other effects. In most edematous states, blood levels of aldosterone are high, causing retention of Na. Edema Aldosterone antagonists are particularly effective diuretics when used in high doses for edema associated with secondary hyperaldosteronism, such as hepatic cirrhosis and nephrotic syndrome. Spironolactone is the diuretic of choice in patients with hepatic cirrhosis with fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ascites). By contrast, in patients who have no significant circulating levels of aldosterone, there is minimal diuretic effect with use of this drug. Hypokalemia Although the aldosterone antagonists have a low efficacy in mobilizing Na from the body in comparison with the+ other diuretics, they have the useful property of causing the retention of K. These agents are often given in+ conjunction with thiazide or loop diuretics to prevent K excretion that occurs with those diuretics. Heart failure Aldosterone antagonists are employed at lower doses to prevent myocardial remodeling mediated by aldosterone. Use of these agents has been shown to decrease mortality associated with heart failure, particularly in those with reduced ejection fraction. Resistant hypertension Resistant hypertension, defined by the use of three or more medications without reaching the blood pressure goal, often responds well to aldosterone antagonists. Polycystic ovary syndrome Spironolactone is often used off-label for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. It blocks androgen receptors and inhibits steroid synthesis at high doses, thereby helping to offset increased androgen levels seen in this disorder. Pharmacokinetics Both spironolactone and eplerenone are well absorbed after oral administration. Spironolactone is extensively metabolized and converted to several active metabolites, which contribute to the therapeutic effects. Hyperkalemia the most common side effect, hyperkalemia, is dose-dependent and increases with renal dysfunction or use of other potassium-sparing agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and potassium supplements. Gynecomastia Spironolactone, but not eplerenone, may induce gynecomastia in approximately 10% of male patients and menstrual irregularities in female patients. Although they have a K -sparing diuretic action similar to that of the aldosterone+ + + antagonists, their ability to block the Na /K -exchange site in the collecting tubule does not depend on the presence+ + of aldosterone. Like the aldosterone antagonists, these agents are not very efficacious diuretics. Both triamterene and amiloride are commonly used in combination with other diuretics, almost solely for their potassium-sparing properties. Mechanism of action Acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase located intracellularly (cytoplasm) and on the apical membrane of the proximal tubular epithelium (ure 17. Changes in 3 the composition of urinary electrolytes induced by acetazolamide are summarized in ure 17. Glaucoma Oral acetazolamide decreases the production of aqueous humor and reduces intraocular pressure in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma, probably by blocking carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary body of the eye. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as dorzolamide and brinzolamide, have the advantage of not causing systemic effects. Altitude sickness Acetazolamide can be used in the prophylaxis of symptoms of altitude sickness. Acetazolamide prevents weakness, breathlessness, dizziness, nausea, and cerebral as well as pulmonary edema characteristic of the syndrome. It is approximately 90% protein bound and eliminated renally by both active tubular secretion and passive reabsorption. Adverse effects Metabolic acidosis (mild), potassium depletion, renal stone formation, drowsiness, and paresthesia may occur. Filtered substances that undergo little or no reabsorption result in a higher osmolarity of the tubular fluid. This prevents further water reabsorption at the descending loop of Henle and proximal convoluted tubule, resulting in osmotic diuresis with little additional Na excretion (aquaresis). Therefore,+ these agents are not useful for treating conditions in which Na retention occurs. They are used to maintain urine+ flow following acute toxic ingestion of substances capable of producing acute renal failure. Osmotic diuretics are a mainstay of treatment for patients with increased intracranial pressure. The expansion of extracellular water occurs because the presence of mannitol in the extracellular fluid extracts water from the cells and causes hyponatremia until diuresis occurs. It is important to administer a diuretic that reduces fluid accumulation in the lungs and improves oxygenation and heart function. The loop diuretics are most effective in removing large fluid volumes from the body and are the treatment of choice in this situation. Acetazolamide is used prophylactically for several days before an ascent above 10,000 feet. This treatment prevents the cerebral and pulmonary problems associated with altitude sickness as well as other difficulties, such as nausea. These patients are frequently resistant to the diuretic action of loop diuretics, although a combination with spironolactone may be beneficial. Hydrochlorothiazide is effective in increasing calcium reabsorption, thus decreasing the amount of calcium excreted, and decreasing the formation of kidney stones that contain calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate. Furosemide increases the excretion of calcium, whereas the K -sparing diuretics, spironolactone,+ and triamterene do not have an effect. In clinic today, she complains of acute joint pain and redness in her great toe, which is diagnosed as gout. Thiazides such as chlorthalidone compete with uric acid for secretion into the lumen of the nephron at the proximal convoluted tubule. This competition decreases uric acid secretion, raising the serum concentration and increasing the risk of a gout attack. Eplerenone acts in the collecting tubule via aldosterone antagonism to inhibit Na+ reabsorption and K excretion. It is extremely important that patients who are treated with any potassium-sparing+ diuretic be closely monitored for potassium levels. Exogenous potassium supplementation is usually discontinued when potassium-sparing diuretic therapy is initiated. Acetazolamide causes an increase in the urinary excretion of bicarbonate, lowering the pH of the blood. An adverse drug reaction to spironolactone is gynecomastia due to its effects on androgens and progesterone in the body. Eplerenone may be a suitable alternative if the patient is in need of an aldosterone antagonist but has a history of gynecomastia. Spironolactone is used to reduce heart structure changes and decrease the risk of death. Aldosterone antagonists are used at non-diuretic doses in heart failure to prevent myocardial remodeling and decrease mortality.