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The primary aim of all these changes is to divert blood from splanchnic and cutaneous circulation to the exer- cising (active) muscles buy extra super viagra impotence kidney stones, while maintaining the cerebral and coronary blood flow purchase 200 mg extra super viagra visa erectile dysfunction names. These changes ensure delivery of substrate for energy production to the vital organs during Fight or flight situations (Application Box 58 cheap extra super viagra 200 mg online erectile dysfunction 23 years old. Norepinephrine produces vasoconstriction in most of the organs via a1 receptors that increases peripheral resistance and therefore, diastolic blood pressure rises. Norepinephrine also produces some degree of tachy- cardia and increases myocardial contractility; there- fore, systolic blood pressure also increases. However, hypertension produced by norepinephrine stimulates baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aor- tic arch (activates baroreceptor reflex) that causes reflex bradycardia, and overrides cardioacceleratory Fig. This is called Fight or flight response, which is exclu- prolonged, then the effect on the body is deleterious, because renal sively mediated by sympathetic stimulation and vasoconstriction decreases kidney blood flow and compromises catecholamines released from adrenal medulla (for kidney function. Chronic sympathetic stimulation may even result in intestinal details, refer Chapter “Sympathetic System”). Catecholamines also increase cardiac excitabil- Catecholamines inhibit gastric secretion and motility. Respiratory System Effects of Epinephrine Catecholamines cause bronchial dilation (prevent expira- 1. Epinephrine increases heart rate and force of myo- tory airway obstruction) so that gas exchange improves. Most of pheochromocytomas produce On Endocrine Glands both epinephrine and norepinephrine. The disease is associated with increased metabolic + Catecholamines increases Na reabsorption from kid- rate, profuse sweating, extreme tachycardia and high ney. In this disease, though there is continuously high + increases Na and water retention. The burst of catecholamine secretion usually occurs + following rapid change in posture or the regular physi- Catecholamines stimulate the entry of K into the muscle + ological events that stimulate sympathetic system. It has positive inotropic effects (via b1 receptors), tration of catecholamines in blood when the patient is in increases cardiac output. The system- As dopamine increases systolic pressure and at the atic improvement occurs with administration of a block- same time maintains kidney functions, it is very useful for ers. The antagonists (both a and b receptor antagonists) olysis and cortisol promotes gluconeogenesis. The antagonists (b receptor blockers) are also used for sues to the neural tissue. Dopamine is used for treatment of traumatic and car- During acute stress, a general state of arousal and vig- diogenic shock. In chronic stress, Chapter 58: Adrenal Gland: the Adrenal Medulla 505 reproductive functions, sexual activity, and feeding are 3. It, along with proadrenomedullin decreases peripheral suppressed that are also mediated by catecholamines. The hypo- thalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis works in adaptation to Chromogranin stress. This is a granular protein present in the secretory gran- ules of chromaffin cells. Chromogranins are secreted along with catechola- Adrenomedullin is a polypeptide hormone. Adrenal medulla is a neuroendocrine gland, a modified sympathetic postganglionic tissue. Therefore, sympathetic stimulation results in instantaneous increase in catecholamines level in plasma. Though, epinephrine and norepinephrine act on both a and b receptors, in general, epinephrine acts more on b receptors and norepinephrine on a receptors. Though sympathetic activation is essential in stressful situations to maintain energy metabolism and cardiovascular parameters, chronic stress (sustained sympathetic stimulation) is not good for body as it leads to depletion and degeneration. In examination, “Describe the synthesis, metabolism and physiological effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline” may come as a Long Question. In examination, Fight or flight response, Pheochromocytoma, Difference in the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline on cardiovascular system, Effects of catecholamines on intermediary metabolism can be asked as Short Questions. Correlate the histological specialization of different layers of adrenal cortex and medulla for secretion of specific hormones. Understand the deficiency of adrenocortical enzymes causing a specific dysfunction or syndrome. Describe the regulation of secretion, mechanism of action and functions of glucocorticoids. Describe the regulation of secretion, mechanism of action and functions of mineralocorticoids. Appreciate the physiological importance of cortisol, and indications & contraindication of cortisol use in clinical medicine. Understand the physiological basis of dysfunctions caused by excess or deficiency of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Describe the steps of synthesis and regulation of secretion of adrenocortical hormones. The adrenals consist of two distinct endocrine glands, one Scientists contributed inside the other. The inner adrenal medulla is surrounded by the outer adrenal cortex that consists of three layers (Figs. Adrenal medulla develops from neuroectoder- to American biochemist and endocrinologist Edward Calvin Kendall, mal tissue related to sympathetic ganglia, and, therefore, Swiss biochemist and endocrinologistTadeus Reichstein, and Jamaican secretes catecholamines. At term, the fetal adrenal cortex undergoes rapid Adrenal cortex, the outer zone of the adrenal gland con- degeneration and almost disappears in early infancy. The remaining permanent cortex remains and consti- larger in size in which fetal adrenal cortex constitute 80% tutes postnatal adrenal cortex. During fetal life, the fetal adrenal cortex synthesizes makes only 20% of the gland. Androstenedione Zona fasciculata: This is the middle and widest layer of the adrenal cortex. Cells of this layer secrete glucocorti- coids (mainly cortisol and corticosterone) and sex steroids. Zona reticularis: This is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex and constitutes about 10% of its mass. Cells of this layer secrete sex steroids like C androgens and estrogens, and to some extent also gluco- Figs. The glucocorticoids are important for their metabolic, From blood: Most of the cholesterol used for biosyn- permissive, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppre- thesis of steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol ssive effects.
Aesthet Surg J 21(3): and surgical endpoints when using ultrasonic instru- 233–240 mentation for lipoplasty buy extra super viagra 200 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction pump as seen on tv. Ultrasound M ed Biol from initial high excitement with rudimentary frst-gen- 22(1):101–112 eration technology to waning excitement with second- 4 discount 200mg extra super viagra amex erectile dysfunction treatment home remedies. Garcia O buy extra super viagra 200mg with mastercard young erectile dysfunction treatment, Nathan M (2008) Comparative analysis of blood generation technology to stable and growing acceptance loss in suction-assisted lipoplasty and 3rd-generation internal ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty. In addition, systemic antiandrogen recep- pooing products, and that attempt to enrich the local tor antagonists, such as spironolactone and cyproter- vascularity of the scalp, such as laser therapy, have one acetate, may be benefcial for female patients also been marketed to sufferers of alopecia. W hat lies beyond the scope minoxidil and fnasteride are the subject of recent stud- of this chapter is discussion of hair physiology, patient ies in which these medications have been applied in selection, coverage options, and surgical therapies. Although many studies counts revealed stabilization at 1 year compared with have shown that minoxidil overall effectively treats 72% of controls that showed advancing hair loss. However, M aximal effects may be evident at 1 year and dimin- the patients who terminated use of fnasteride exhib- ishes somewhat thereafter. An extended study at 5 years proven benefcial in female patients with a 50% demonstrated durable improvement in the treated stabilization and 13% regrowth rate . As evident, minox- also corroborated the objective and subjective beneft idil may be more effective in preservation of hair than to the treated versus the placebo group . Further, minoxidil works by con- fnding study determined that 1 mg oral dose was verting miniaturized, telegenic hairs into more active, optimal for hair growth . Another study found no anagenic shafts but is less successful in a totally beneft in postmenopausal women after a 12-month exposed pate. Side effects exhibited by minoxidil are more resolves with discontinuation of the drug and even in local, usually an irritative dermatitis in 7. Facial hypertrichosis may be should be withheld from women of childbearing age, evident in 5% of female patients but is usually transi- as crushed tablets may expose a male fetus to genital tory and rarely requires any intervention. The spironolactone principally concern menstrual diffcul- study found that dutasteride was threefold more potent ties but may also give rise to precipitous hyperkalemia. Cyproterone acetate, an androgen receptor antagonist and progestin, should only be used in women, given 41. As irregularities, weight gain, breast tenderness, depres- the hair cycle enters anagen, angiogenesis is stimulated. Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that is most the guinea-pig scalp with radiation-induced alopecia often absent in patients sustained on exclusive paren- showed protective effects on hair loss and increased teral nutrition. Another vitamin that of skepticism toward nontraditional, herbal, or Eastern has been often cited as a critical cofactor in hair remedies that lack rigorous scientifc validity. The fol- D has also been used to correct chemotherapy-induced lowing section is not meant to substantiate the divers alopecia in an animal model . M any oral and topi- herbal extracts and preparations available on the market cal formulations of various substances are promoted as but to offer a brief introduction to some of the common panaceas for hair loss, including zinc, amino acids, therapies that exist in order to provide the physician numerous vitamins, hormones, jojoba oil, urea, wheat with some educated thought on the subject. The results of 5 of pharmaceutical products, such as minoxidil, by alpha-reductase inhibitory activity have been equivo- creating a favorable scalp environment. A preliminary study in hair regrowth has these lotions and cleansers attempt to rid the hair-scalp shown some favorable results with combined oral and complex of excessive sebum that may choke local 41 Medical Management Options for Hair Loss 533 vascularity to the follicle. Unfortunately, shampoos are currently under way to investigate the utility of this and conditioners that make these claims have not new modality. Scientifc inquiry has also been directed at ies have looked at the favorable effect that this topical methods that target the genetic basis for hair loss. Further, occa- preliminary stages and may prove to be the mainstay sional contact dermatitis arising from use of this prod- of therapy in the more remote future. Oftentimes, products that in both topical treatment products as well as in sham- claim scientifc validity have not been subjected to poos. W ith blinded study revealed the subjective improvement in the Internet’s broad appeal, many unsuspecting patients patients compared with placebo controls as well as have tried an overwhelming number of unsubstantiated objective increase in hair count using the higher products. Sintov A, Serafmovich S, Gilhar A (2000) New topical anti- Although laser therapy for temporary hair removal has androgenic formulations can stimulate hair growth in human bald scalp grafted onto mice. Int J Pharm 194(1):125–134 shown some effcacy, laser therapy for hair growth is 2. J Cutan M ed Surg 3(Suppl 3): in blood fow with the diode laser compared with a S21–S27 decrease in blood fow with noncoherent monochro- 3. Burke B, Cunliffe W (1985) Oral spironolactone therapy for liminary European results. Dermatologica 175(Suppl 2):42–49 female patients with acne, hirsutism or androgenic alopecia. Arch Dermatol 123(11):1483–1487 tosterone in the presence of the irreversible 5 alpha-reductase 10. Clin Pharmacol Ther topical minoxidil in the management of androgenetic 64(6):636–647 alopecia. J Invest Dermatol 104(5 Suppl): Neste D, Randall V (eds) Hair research for the next millen- 18S–20S nium. Arch Dermatol 130(3):303–307 ide protects radiation-induced alopecia in guinea pigs. Finasteride Palma E, Caponera M , Sciarra F (1992) Evidence that male pattern hair loss study group. J Am Acad Dermatol Serenoa repens extract displays an antiestrogenic activity in 39(4 Pt 1):578–589 prostatic tissue of benign prostatic hypertrophy patients. Leyden J, Dunlap F, M iller B, W inters P, Lebwohl M , Hecker D, Urol 21:309–314 Kraus S, Baldwin H, Shalita A, Draelos Z, M arkou M , 33. Br J Clin Pharmacol 18(3):461–462 Best S, Round E, W aldstreicher J (1999) Finasteride in the 34. El-Sheikh M M , Dakkkak M R, Saddique A (1988) the effect treatment of men with frontal male pattern hair loss. Eur J Dermatol 12(1):38–49 commercial plant extracts in in vitro and in vivo alpha 20. Prostate 22(1):43–51 Finasteride improves male pattern hair loss in a randomized 36. Eur J Dermatol 12(1):32–37 effects of a lyposterolic extract of Serenoa repens on plasma 41 Medical Management Options for Hair Loss 535 levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and 43. Clin Ther 10(5):585–588 dexpanthenol on epidermal barrier function and stratum 37. Uno H, Kurata S (1993) Chemical agents and peptides affect rickets: an end organ unresponsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvi- hair growth. Eur J Dermatol 9(8):606–609 Hair Removal 42 Afshin Sadighha and Gita Meshkat Razavi proved permanent in all patients. The use of lasers in hair Unwanted hair is a common problem in women most removal allows selective targeting of the hair bulb and often encountered in the primary care setting. M elanin absorbs the light metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be emitted by the laser at a specifc wavelength. Laser hair removal, although better energy of the laser converts into heat, causing the studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, selective destruction of the hair bulb. Clinical studies on the effcacy of much melanin in the adjacent skin, the laser energy many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal is absorbed into the surrounding epidermis, causing of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is epidermal damage or absorptive interference with less electrolysis.
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T2-weighted images may show hypointense buy extra super viagra 200mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction medication list, isointense buy cheap extra super viagra on-line erectile dysfunction drugs from canada, or hyperintense metastatic lesions discount extra super viagra generic impotence young. Chemotherapy may be used singularly or in combination with conservative surgical resection when metastasis is localized to three or fewer segments. Etiology: Risk factors associated with hepatoma include hepatitis B infection, alcohol-induced cirrhosis, aflatoxin (a mold that grows on rice and peanuts)-contaminated food, anabolic steroids, Thorotrast (thorium dioxide, a contrast medium formerly used in liver radiography), and immunosuppressive agents. Epidemiology: In the United States, incidence rates range from one to five new cases per 100,000 population per year. The incidence rate among individuals from China, Southeast Asia, western and southern Africa, Taiwan, and Hong Kong is high. Treatment: Surgical intervention to remove the tumor prolongs life and may improve the patient’s quality of life. T2W image shows the hepatoma to be slightly hyperintense to the surrounding liver with a central area of hyperintensity due to necrosis. Etiology: Though there is no known cause, there is evidence that suggests a link to inhalation or absorption of certain carcinogens found in cigarettes, foods high in fat and protein, food additives, industrial chemicals (betanaphthalene, benzidine, and urea). Additional possible predisposing factors are chronic pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic alcohol abuse. Epidemiology: There are approximately 28,000 new cases diagnosed annually with about 26,000 deaths. Signs and Symptoms: Patients usually present with weight loss, abdominal pain, and jaundice. Jaundice is caused by an obstruction of the bile ducts by the pancreatic tumor (head). Pancreatic Pseudocyst Description: Pancreatic pseudocysts are composed of a collection of cellular debris, old blood, and pancreatic fluid that has become encapsulated in a fibrous sac. Etiology: Pseudocysts of the pancreas may occur as a result of pancreatic inflammation and trauma. Epidemiology: Patients who have recently experienced a bout of acute pancreatitis or trauma to the pancreas are potential candidates to develop 336 pseudocysts. Signs and Symptoms: Patients present with a palpable mass, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and jaundice. Prognosis: Depends on complications associated with extent and severity of the pseudocyst and treatment. Pancreatitis Description: Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, and occurs in 338 acute and chronic forms. The difference between the acute and chronic forms is based on the restoration of normal pancreatic function in the former and permanent residual damage in the latter. Acute pancreatitis can occur at any time; however, chronic pancreatitis tends to occur between 35 and 45 years of age and is usually linked with alcohol intake. Signs and Symptoms: Patients may present with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, mild abdominal distention, fever, hypotension, mild jaundice, reduced or absent bowel sounds, umbilical discoloration (Cullen sign), and pleural effusion. Treatment: Medical treatment is mostly symptomatic with the focus being to prevent and treat the complications. Prognosis: Depends on the underlying condition or etiology as well as the complications associated with pancreatitis. Fluid collection noted along the anterior aspect of the pancreas within the lesser sac (short arrow) with displacement of the barium opacified stomach anteriorly (long arrow). Epidemiology: Unilateral agenesis of the kidney occurs in approximately 1 out of every 500 patients, and is more commonly found in males than females with a 3:1 ratio. Angiomyolipoma 343 Description: Angiomyolipomas are fairly common benign renal tumors composed of three components: (1) fat, (2) blood vessels, and (3) smooth muscles. The term hamartoma is associated with a benign mass composed of disorganized tissues normally found in an organ, while the term choristoma implies a benign mass of disorganized tissues not normally found in an organ. Etiology: A tumor composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues normally present in the affected area (i. Epidemiology: Angiomyolipomas are more commonly seen in females than males ranging from 40 to 60 years of age. About 20% of all patients diagnosed with angiomyolipomas have multiple, bilateral masses, and are associated with tuberous sclerosis. Signs and Symptoms: Patients present with abdominal pain, palpable mass, hemorrhage, and hematuria. T1-weighted fat-suppression technique allows fat within the tumor to be distinguished from hemorrhage. Treatment: Surgical intervention is required if life-threatening hemorrhaging occurs. This is confirmed on a fat- suppressed T2W image (B) which demonstrates signal loss in the mass. Horseshoe Kidney Description: A horseshoe kidney is a congenital anomaly characterized by the fusion of the lower (90%) or upper (10%) poles of the kidney. This produces a horseshoe-shaped structure continuous across the midline and anterior to the great vessels. Treatment: This congenital anomaly is usually seen as an incidental finding and requires no treatment. Perinephric Hematoma Description: A perinephric hematoma is a collection of blood that is confined to Gerota fascia (i. It is common for a hemorrhage to occur in the perinephrotic space following a renal biopsy. Signs and Symptoms: Depending on the extent of the injury and time to treatment, patients may present with abdominal pain, an open wound, signs of internal bleeding with blood in the urine, increased heart rate, declining blood pressure, and hypovolemic shock, nausea and vomiting, decreased alertness, and moist clammy skin. Treatment: Surgical intervention may be required in emergent situations for the hemodynamically unstable patient. Conservative treatment for the stable patient may include bed rest, analgesics, and patient monitoring. Prognosis: Depends on the extent of the injury, patient response to treatment, and any other associated injuries. These cysts cause lobulated enlargements of the kidneys that result in cystic compression and progressive failure of the renal tissue. Etiology: Adult polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary (autosomal dominant) disorder. Signs and Symptoms: Patients may present with hypertension, hematuria, palpable kidneys, hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, and flank pain. Treatment is aimed at preserving renal parenchyma and preventing infectious complications. Progressive renal failure requires treatment such as dialysis or, rarely, kidney transplant.