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Use of table E5 for conversion from fentanyl to other opioids can overestimate the dose of the new agent and may result in overdosage of the new agent purchase 0.18mg alesse free shipping birth control with no periods. Take into consideration that serum fentanyl concentrations decline gradually after removal of the patch order 0.18mg alesse birth control 999 effective, decreasing about 50% in approximately 17 (range 13-22) hours cheap alesse online american express birth control for 15 year old. Use conservative conversion doses and provide the patient with supplemental short-acting opioids to be taken as needed. Pain treatment indicators: Health care services for pain measurable with electronic health care data. Public and private payer coverage and payment methodologies for pain-related treatments. Learning objectives and potential outcome measures for an educational campaign on safer use of pain medications. It will identify gaps in our research agenda and recommend directions for new research to guide federal entities in their support of essential pain research programs. These included: • the public at large and people with pain would benefit from a better understanding of pain and its treatment in order to encourage timely care, improve medical management, and combat stigmatization. The greatest individual and societal benefit would accrue from a focus on chronic pain. To increase the quantity and quality of what is known about chronic pain within the U. It also recommends development of the capacity to gather information electronically about pain treatments, their usage, costs, effectiveness, and safety. Prevention and Care Prevention of acute and chronic pain, especially primary prevention strategies, needs greater emphasis throughout the health care system, including delivery of long term services and supports, and in environments where injuries are likely to occur (e. When chronic pain develops, treatment should begin with a comprehensive assessment, followed by creation of a care plan that can evolve over time to address the full range of biological, psychological, and social effects of pain on the individual. It also recommends improvements in pain self-management programs that can 5 help affected individuals improve their knowledge, skills, and confidence to prevent, reduce, and cope with pain, and minimize treatment risks and adverse effects. Disparities Pain is more prevalent or disabling and/or care is inadequate in certain vulnerable populations including people with limited access to health care services, racial and ethnic minorities, people with low income or education, children, older adults, and those at increased risk because of where they live or 2,3 work, or because of limited communication skills. Many of these groups face additional problems of 3,4,5 stigmatization and bias in pain care. Service Delivery and Payment Evidence suggests that wide variations in clinical practice, inadequate tailoring of pain therapies to individuals, and reliance on relatively ineffective and potentially high risk treatments such as inappropriate prescribing of opioid analgesics, or certain surgical interventions, not only contribute to 1,6,7 poor quality care for people with pain, but also increase health care costs. Research and demonstration efforts are needed that build on current knowledge, develop new knowledge, and support further testing and diffusion of model delivery systems. Professional Education and Training Although pain is one of the most common reasons for health care visits, most health profession 8 education programs have yet to give it adequate attention. It encourages educational program accreditation bodies and professional licensure boards to require pain teaching and clinician learning at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The National Pain Strategy recommends a national public awareness campaign involving public and private partners to address misperceptions and stigma about chronic pain. The learning objectives of the campaign would emphasize the impact and seriousness of chronic pain and its status as a disease that requires appropriate treatment. In addition, an educational campaign on the safer use of pain medications that is targeted to people with pain whose care includes these medications is recommended. These efforts will help to prevent pain, improve patient care and outcomes, assure appropriate patient and provider education, and advance pain-related applied research. The intent is to reduce the burden of pain for individuals, their families, and society as a whole. The Strategy envisions an environment in which: • People experiencing pain would have timely access to patient-centered care that meets their biopsychosocial needs and takes into account individual preferences, risks, and social contexts, including dependence and addiction. All pain-related services would be provided without bias, discrimination, or stigmatization. Individuals who live with chronic pain would be viewed and treated with compassion and respect. Treatment would involve high-quality, state-of-the-art, multimodal, evidence-based practices. While most pain care would be coordinated by primary care practitioners, specialists would be involved in the care of patients who have increased co morbidities, complexity, or are at risk for dependence or addiction. Clinician’s knowledge would be broadened to encompass an understanding of individual variability in pain susceptibility and treatment response, the importance of shared (patient-providers) and informed decision-making, ways to encourage pain self-management, appropriate prescribing practices, how empathy and cultural sensitivity influence the effectiveness of care, and the role of complementary and integrative medicine. These data resources would be used in an ongoing effort to evaluate, compare, and enhance health care systems, identify areas for further research, and assess therapies for quality and value. Such data would lay the groundwork for enhancing the effectiveness and safety of pain care overall and for specific population groups and would enable monitoring of the effectiveness of policy initiatives, public education efforts, and changing treatment patterns. Actions to improve pain care and patient access to and appropriate use of opioid analgesics for pain management would be coordinated and balanced with the need to curb inappropriate prescribing and use practices. Specifically, Recommendation 2-2 called for creation of “a comprehensive population health-level strategy for pain prevention, treatment, management, and research. The body of this report is structured to reflect the results of the work groups’ deliberations. Each of the six sections includes a statement of the problem and a set of priority objectives with accompanying discrete and achievable deliverables to address the problem. The time frame for completion of deliverables is presented as short (approximately one year), medium (two to four years), and long term (within five years). Stakeholders best positioned to achieve the deliverables are identified and metrics to assess progress are suggested. The report is intended to initiate a longer-term effort to create a cultural transformation in how pain is perceived, assessed, and treated—a significant step toward the ideal state of pain care. Box 1 Definitions Acute pain is an expected physiologic experience to noxious stimuli that can become pathologic, is normally sudden in onset, time limited, and motivates behaviors to avoid actual or potential tissue injuries. Biopsychosocial refers to a medical problem or intervention that combines biological, psychological, and social elements or aspects. Chronic pain is pain that occurs on at least half the days for six months or more. Complementary health approaches are mind and body practices and natural products of non-mainstream origin, including chiropractic and osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, relaxation, yoga, acupuncture, and naturopathic medicine. Continuum of pain is the characterization of pain as a temporal process, beginning with an acute stage, which may progress to a chronic state of variable duration. Disease management refers to a system of integrated, multidisciplinary interventions and communications for populations with chronic disorders in which self-care efforts are significant. Health disparities adversely affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, or physical disability; sexual orientation or gender identity; geographic location; or other characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion. High-impact chronic pain is associated with substantial restriction of participation in work, social, and self-care activities for six months or more. Integrated care is the systematic coordination of medical, psychological and social aspects of health care and includes primary care, mental health care, and, when needed, specialist services. Interdisciplinary care is provided by a team of health professionals from diverse fields who coordinate their skills and resources to meet patient goals.
The lecture note contains basic selected topics order alesse 0.18mg with visa birth control vaginal ring, which are relevant to their scope cheap 0.18 mg alesse with visa birth control pills for heavy periods. It is well known that no nursing service can be provided with out basic skills of nursing art purchase alesse 0.18mg without prescription birth control 91 day. For public health nurse to provide health service at different settings; hospital, health center, health post and at the community level, the course is very essential. The lecture note is therefore organized in logical manner that students can learn from simpler to the complex. Important abbreviations and glossaries have been included in order to facilitate teaching learning processes. On top of that learning objectives are clearly stated to indicate the required outcomes. Trial is made to give some scientific explanation for procedure and some relevant study questions are prepared to each unit to aid students understand the subject. I also extend many thanks to colleagues from sisterly institutions and staff of our department for their valuable comments and criticism, other wise the lecture note would have not been shaped. Similarly, my felt thanks is to supportive staff of Carter Center, Ato Aklilu Mulugetta for his devoted support through the preparation of this lecture note. Last but not least, I thank all our College authorities for permission to work on this lecture note besides the routine activities of the college. Nursing is the art and science involves working with individual, families, and communities to promote wellness of body, mind, and spirit. It is a dynamic, therapeutic and educational process that serves to meet the health needs of the society, including its most vulnerable members. Historical Background of Nursing In the early ages, much of the practice of medicine was integrated with religious practices. Before the development of modern nursing, women of nomadic tribes performed nursing duties, such as helping the very young, the old, and the sick, care-dwelling mothers practiced the nursing of their time. As human needs expanded, nursing development broadened; its interest and functions through the social climates created by religious ideologies, economics, industrial revolutions, wars, crusades, and education. The intellectual revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries led to a scientific revolution. The dynamic change in economic and political situations also influenced every corner of human development including nursing. Basic Nursing Art 2 She greatly modified the tradition of nursing that existed before her era. She also contributed to the definition of nursing " to put the patient in best possible way for nature to act. History of Nursing in Ethiopia Even though Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world, introduction of modern medicine was very late. Health care of communities and families was by Hakim (wogesha or traditional healers). Around 1866 missionaries came to Eritrea, (one of the former provinces of Ethiopia) and started to provide medical care for very few members of the society. Later hospital building was continued which raised the need to train health auxiliaries and nurses. In 1949 the Ethiopian Red Cross, School of Nursing was established at Hailesellasie I hospital in Addis Ababa. In 1954 HailesellasieI Public Health College was established in Gondar to train health officer, community health nurses and sanitarians. An additional higher health professional training institution was also established in 1983 In Jimma. After the overthrown of the Dergue, the transitional government of Ethiopia developed a health policy that emphasizes health promotion, diseases prevention, and curative and rehabilitative health service with priority to the rural societies. As the result of the policy the training of public health nursing at the diploma level came in to existence since 1995. Additional public health higher training institutions were established at Dilla and Alemaya in 1996. The outputs of these training institutions are providing services all over the country. Close doors and windows before you start some procedures like bed bath and back care. After completion of a procedure, observe the patient reaction to the procedure, take care of all used equipment and return to their proper place. Patient Care Unit: is the space where the patient is accommodated in hospital and consists of the bed, an over bed table, a bedside table, and possibly a chair. Consists of a hospital bed, bed side stand, over bed table, chair, overhead light, suction and oxygen, electrical outlets, sphygmomanometer, a nurses call light, waste container and bed side table. Hospital Bed • Gatch bed: a manual bed which requires the use of hand racks or foot pedals to manipulate the bed into desired positions i. Side rails • Half rails – run only half the length of the bed, are meant to prevent client falls • It should be attached to both sides of the bed ♦ Rails – Full rails – run the length of the bed – Half rails run only half the length of the bed and commonly attached to the pediatrics bed. Bed Side Stand • Is a small cabinet that generally consists of a drawer and a cupboard area with shelves • Used to store the utensils needed for clients care. Includes the washbasin (bath basin, emesis (kidney) basin, bed pan and urinal • Has a towel rack on either sides or along the back • Is best for storing personal items that are desired near by or that will be used frequently E. Over Bed Table • the height is adjustable • Can be positioned and consists of a rectangular, flat surface supported by a side bar attached to a wide base on wheels • Along side or over the bed or over a chair • Used for holding the tray during meals, or care items when completing personal hygiene F. The Chair • Most basic care units have at least one chair located near the bedside Basic Nursing Art 6 • For the use of the client, a visitor, or a care provider G. Overhead Light (examination light) • Is usually placed at the head of the bed, attached to either the wall or the ceiling • A movable lamp may also be used • Useful for the client for reading or doing close work • Important for the nurse during assessment H. Suction and Oxygen Outlets • Suction is a vacuum created in a tube that is used to pull (evacuate) fluids from the body E. Care of Patient Unit • Nursing staffs are not responsible for actual cleaning of dust and other dirty materials from hospital. General Instructions for Care of Hospital Equipment • Use articles only for the purpose for which they are intended • Keep articles clean and in good condition. Use the proper cleaning method • Protect mattresses with rubber sheets • Use protective pillowcases on pillows. Hot water coagulates the protein of organic material and tends to make it adhere • Wash well in hot soapy water. Use an abrasive, such as a stiff-bristled brush, to clean equipment • Rinse well under running water • Dry the article • Clean the gloves, brush and sink 3. Care of Linen and Removal of Stains • Clean linen should be folded properly and be kept neatly in the linen cupboard • Dirty linen should be put in the dirty linen bag (hamper) and never be placed on the floor • Torn linen should be mended or sent to the sewing room • Linen with blood should be soaked in cold water to which a small amount of hydrogen peroxide is added if available • Linen stained with urine and feces is first rinsed in cold water and then washed with soap • Iodine stained linen apply ammonia, rinse and then wash with cold water • Ink stained linen – first soak in cold water or milk for at least for 24 hrs then rub a paste of salt and lemon juice on the stain and allow the article to lie in the sun • Tea or coffee stains – wash in cold water and then pour boiling water on the stain Basic Nursing Art 9 • To remove vitamin B complex stains dissolve in water or sprit • Mucus stains – soak in salty water • Rust soak in salt and lemon juice and then bleach in sun 4. Care of Pick Up Forceps and Jars Pick up forceps: an instrument that allows one to pick up sterile equipment.
Rates of anaphylactoid reactions to low-osmolar con of undiluted local anesthetic was a safe and effective method trast agents are significantly lower than rates observed with in a study of 252 patients alesse 0.18 mg for sale birth control pills 1974. Complement acti Summary Statement 147: Risk factors for anaphylactoid vation may account for some reactions buy alesse with mastercard birth control pill 5 minutes late. However buy alesse online from canada birth control 24 active pills, the ceptor antihistamines; this will significantly reduce, but not latter agents may not be favorable from a risk-benefit stand eliminate, risk for anaphylactoid reaction with reexposure to point in patients with cardiovascular disease. The during which the drug is tolerated suggests an IgE-mediated diagnosis is usually established by history, but if the history mechanism, but attempts to detect drug specific IgE have is unclear or when definite diagnosis is required, a controlled been unsuccessful in most cases. However, a recent investi oral provocation challenge with aspirin may be performed. These proximately 85% will have a respiratory reaction confirming 140 specific IgE tests were specific in that other pyrazolone the diagnosis. A recent study showed that 100% of patients derivatives (antipyrine, aminophenazone, or metamizol) were with a history of aspirin causing a severe reaction (poor unable to inhibit IgE binding in the in vitro system. The response to albuterol with need for medical intervention) had 141 reaction is not due to arachidonic acid dysfunction, and any positive oral aspirin challenges. A 619 pharmacologic induction of drug tolerance procedure (also of chronic urticaria. This type throughout several days, until a dosage of 650 mg (2 tablets) of reactions also occurs in individuals without a prior history of chronic urticaria. Aspirin desensitization treatment im are also at increased risk for the development of chronic proves clinical outcomes for both upper and lower respiratory urticaria. The cough resolves with discon unpredictable and differs from the temporal pattern of other tinuation of the drug therapy in days to weeks. There are, however, tor–induced angioedema may be related to interference with case reports of occasional patients who continue to experi bradykinin degradation. Because there is no diagnostic test to prove sporadically despite persistent treatment. Cough occurs in up to 20% of patients, is typically dry and nonproductive, and occurs more commonly reactions are related to high cytokine levels administered in women, blacks, and Asians. Cross-reactive reactions may occur when accumulation of bradykinin, which may cause stimulation of the biologic agent is intended for a pathologic cell type but vagal afferent nerve fibers to produce cough. Finally, biologics may also also been shown to induce the production of arachidonic acid result in nonimmunologic adverse effects. Cytokines ute to cough production through proinflammatory mecha 149 Summary Statement 171: Allergic drug reactions ranging nisms. Such reactions should be clearly dis A variety of immune-mediated reactions have occurred tinguished from cytokine release or acute respiratory distress during infliximab (Remicade) treatment for adult and juvenile syndromes caused by other monoclonal antibodies (eg, ritux rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and psoriasis. However, severe serum sickness–like reactions have include urticaria, flare-up of atopic dermatitis, maculopapular 653,654 been reported after infusions of rituximab and natalizumab. A recent retrospective treatment, slowing infusion rates, or induction of drug toler evaluation of safety with this agent revealed that immediate 184 ance. In patients with immediate-type reactions, successful hypersensitivity reactions (9/84 or 11%) were a major reason 645 induction of tolerance to rituximab, infliximab, and trastu for discontinuation of the drug therapy. A subset of patients zumab has been reported using a 6-hour protocol in combi experienced allergic reactions as a result of antibodies to 175 nation with corticosteroid and antihistamine premedication. Other possible immunologically related reac tions include the Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral neu 4. A contemporaneous review of omali zumab (Xolair; Genentech) clinical trials and postmarketing 3. The Omalizumab Joint A patient who had experienced anaphylaxis to basiliximab sub Task Force report recommended that patients receiving oma sequently tolerated a humanized version (daclizumab) with im 649 lizumab should be directly observed, in a physician’s office, punity. Anticancer Monoclonal Antibodies nal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor), in Summary Statement 175: the cytokine release syndrome cluding IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, has been reported to occur at must be distinguished between anaphylactoid and anaphylac a national rate of 3% or less but much higher (22%) in the Mid tic reactions due to anticancer monoclonal antibodies. Anaphylactoid reactions and istration of the first dose of the drug due to a cytokine release deaths have been associated with intravenous iron prepara 185,186 tions. Life-threatening reactions to the osmotic di adulterated with synthetic medications. There are also anecdotal reports of reactions to about the use of herbs and health supplements. Anaphylactic sodium benzoate and chlorobutanol, which are used as pre reactions to vitamins (particularly B1 and B2) are extremely servatives in various biologicals. Other Agents to sulfites in some asthmatic patients may be due to a defi Summary Statement 177: N-acetylcysteine may cause ana ciency of sulfite oxidase; however, most cases are due to phylactoid reactions. In a prospective case controlled study, 31/64 excipients in commonly used drug formulations. The incidence of antimicrobial However, it is more widely used as an excipient in pharma allergies in hospitalized patients: implications regarding prescribing ceutical preparations. Cross-reactivity and T-cell receptors into hybridoma cells: tools to monitor drug interaction tolerability of cephalosporins in patients with immediate hypersensi with T-cell receptors and evaluate cross-reactivity to related com tivity to penicillins. Safety and effectiveness of a pathways of antigen recognition by specific alpha-beta human T-cell preoperative allergy clinic in decreasing vancomycin use in patients clones. Flow cytometric basophil between sulfonamide antibiotics and sulfonamide nonantibiotics. The diagnostic interpretation of diagnostic tests in adverse reactions to quinolones. J Investig Allergol basophil activation test in immediate allergic reactions to betalactams. Severe cutaneous hyper cutaneous adverse drug reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syn sensitivity reactions during treatment of tuberculosis in patients with drome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Histopathology of drug-induced infiltrates with eosinophilia and skin involvement. Results of the National associated with myoclonus and Quincke’s edema due to isoniazid and Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases collaborative clinical trial isoniazid sodium methanesulfonate [in Japanese]. A case of human insulin allergy 1: cytotoxic drugs; and part 2: noncytotoxic drugs. Two-day oral desensitization to cancer: high-dose versus low-dose and long versus short infusion. Management of adverse reac hypersensitivity reactions: experience of the gynecologic oncology tions to prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients with program of the Cleveland Clinic cancer Center. Successful oral desen 12-step protocol effective in 35 desensitizations in patients with gyne sitization to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in acquired immune defi cological malignancies and mast cell/IgE-mediated reactions. Successful paren desensitization with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in 48 previ tal desensitization to paclitaxel. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole to chemotherapy: outcomes and safety of rapid desensitization in 413 incremental dose regimen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected per cases. Expanded experience with an desensitization to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (T/S) in patients with intradermal skin test to predict for the presence or absence of carbo human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection who were previously platin hypersensitivity. IgE-medicated anaphylactic sulfonamides in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syn reaction induced by succinate ester of methylprednisolone. The role of a documented tigation of anaesthesia-associated anaphylaxis in Newcastle, Australia.
Cefotaxime cheap alesse 0.18mg without prescription birth control free, ceftazidim order alesse with visa birth control pills estrogen, and ceftriaxone crosses blood brain barrier generic 0.18 mg alesse with mastercard birth control pills quarterly, hence inhibit most pathogens, including gram-negative rods. Clinical uses: Gonorrhea (ceftriaxone and cefixime), meningitis (pneumococci, meningococci, H influenzae, and susceptible enteric gram-negative rods), penicillin-resistant strains of pneumococci (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime), and sepsis Fourth-generation cephalosporins (e. Adverse Effects: Cephalosporins are sensitizing and may elicit a variety of hypersensitivity reactions that are identical to those of penicillins. They are relatively resistant to beta-lactamases and active against gram-negative rods. Carbapenems include imipenem and meropenem and have a broad spectrum of activity (against most Gram-positive and negative bacteria). Imipenem is inactivated by a renal proteolytic enzyme and must therefore be combined with cilastatin which inhibits the enzyme. They have no antimicrobial activity, and usually combined with beta lactamase labile antibiotics, irreversibly inhibit beta-lactamases. Examples: Ticarcillin and clavulanate [Timentin], Ampicillin and sulbactam [Unasyn], Amoxicillin and clavulanate [Augmentin] 149 Vancomycin Vancomycin is active only against gram-positive bacteria, particularly staphylococci. Vancomycin is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract and is administered orally only for the treatment of antibiotic-associated enterocolitis caused by Clostridium difficile. Clinical Uses: Parenteral vancomycin is indicated for sepsis or endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci. It irritates the tissues surrounding the injection site and is known to cause a red man or red neck syndrome. It is markedly nephrotoxic if administered systemically, thus limited to topical use. Cycloserine Cycloserine inhibits many gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, but it is used almost exclusively to treat tuberculosis caused by strains of M tuberculosis resistant to first-line agents. Cycloserine causes serious dose-related central nervous system toxicity with headaches, tremors, acute psychosis, and convulsions. Cell Membrane Function Inhibitors Antimirobials such as polymyxins acting on gram negative bacteria and affects the functional integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane, macromolecules and ions escape from the cell and cell damage and death occurs. Polymyxins are effective against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly pseudomonas species. The major adverse effects are nephrotoxicity dizziness, alterd sensation and neuromuscular paralysis. Protien synthesis inhibitors are divided into two groups: bacteriostatic and bactericidal. Chloramphenicol, macrolides, clindamycin (Lincosamides), and tetracyclines are bacteriostatic whereas aminoglycosides are bactericidal. Mechanisms of action: Chloramphenicol blocks proper binding of 50S site which, stops protein synthesis. It does inhibit mitochondrial ribosomal protein synthesis because these ribosomes are 70S, the same as those in bacteria. Tetracyclines can inhibit mammalian protein synthesis, but because they are "pumped" out of most mammalian cells do not usually reach concentrations needed to significantly reduce mammalian protein synthesis. These activities occur more or less simultaneously, and the overall effect is irreversible and lethal for the cell. Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Clinically significant resistance emerges and may be due to production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, an enzyme that inactivates the drug. Excretion of active chloramphenicol and of inactive degradation products occurs by way of the urine. Newborns less than a week old and premature infants clear chloramphenicol inadequately. Clinical Uses: Because of potential toxicity, bacterial resistance, and the availability of other effective drugs, chloramphenicol may be considered mainly for treatment of serious rickettsial infections, bacterial meningitis caused by a markedly penicillin-resistant strain of pneumococcus or meningococcus, and thyphoid fever. Adverse Reactions Gastrointestinal disturbances: Adults occasionally develop nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Oral or vaginal candidiasis may occur as a result of alteration of normal microbial flora. Bone marrow disturbances: Chloramphenicol commonly causes a dose-related reversible suppression of red cell production at dosages exceeding 50 mg/kg/d after 1-2 weeks. Aplastic anemia is a rare consequence of chloramphenicol administration by any route. It is an idiosyncratic reaction unrelated to dose, though it occurs more frequently with prolonged use. Toxicity for newborn infants: Newborn infants lack an effective glucuronic acid conjugation mechanism for the degradation and detoxification of chloramphenicol. Consequently, when infants are given dosages above 50 mg/kg/d, the drug may accumulate, resulting in the gray baby syndrome, with vomiting, flaccidity, hypothermia, gray color, shock, and collapse. Interaction with other drugs: Chloramphenicol inhibits hepatic microsomal enzymes that metabolize several drugs. Like other bacteriostatic inhibitors of microbial protein synthesis, chloramphenicol can antagonize bactericidal drugs such as penicillins or aminoglycosides. Tetracyclines the tetracyclines are a large group of drugs with a common basic structure and activity. Tetracyclines are classified as short acting (chlortetracycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline), intermediate acting (demeclocycline and methacycline), or long-acting (doxycycline and minocycline) based on serum half-lives. They are active against for many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including anaerobes, rickettsiae, chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, and are active against some protozoa. The main mechanisms of resistance to tetracycline is decreased intracellular accumulation due to either impaired influx or increased efflux by an active transport protein pump. Pharmacokinetics: Tetracyclines mainly differ in their absorption after oral administration and their elimination. A portion of an orally administered dose of tetracycline remains in the gut lumen, modifies intestinal flora, and is excreted in the feces. Absorption occurs mainly in the upper small intestine and is impaired by food (except doxycycline and minocycline); by divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+) or Al3+; by dairy products and antacids, which contain multivalent cations; and by alkaline pH. They are distributed widely to tissues and body fluids except for cerebrospinal fluid. Minocycline reaches very high concentrations in tears and saliva, which makes it useful for eradication of the meningococcal carrier state. Tetracyclines cross the placenta to reach the fetus and are also excreted in milk. Doxycycline, in contrast to other tetracyclines, is eliminated by nonrenal mechanisms.
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