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Esto ha sido posible en gran medida gracias al desarrollo de tcnicas no invasivas de anlisis de metabolitos de esteroides en heces purchase aristocort online from canada allergy usf, que constituye el mtodo de eleccin para el seguimiento de la funcin endocrina en especies silvestres cheap aristocort online american express allergy shots dangerous, incluyendo a los felinos purchase discount aristocort line allergy medicine hallucinations. Se reconoce ampliamente que entre los felinos existen distintos patrones endocrinos, de los cuales muchos rasgos y mecanismos son poco comunes o incluso nicos. Existe una gran variabilidad en el tipo de ovulacin (espontnea frente a inducida) en este taxn. Incluso en una misma especie, algunas hembras slo presentan ovulacin inducida, mientras que en otras tambin se da la ovulacin espontnea. El metabolismo de esteroides tambin presenta diferencias: los metabolitos se excretan casi exclusivamente en las heces, con muy poca presencia de esteroides en la orina. Las distintas especies presentan grandes diferencias en cuanto a las infuencias estacionales y sociales sobre la reproduccin, las respuestas suprarrenales al manejo de la especie en cautividad y la respuesta ovrica a los procedimientos de reproduccin asistida. Por consiguiente, el desarrollo de estrategias para la mejora de la salud y la reproduccin de los felinos se debe realizar caso por caso. Este captulo resume el estado actual del conocimiento sobre la endocrinologa reproductiva de las hembras de felinos domsticos y silvestres, adems de describir cmo la base de datos sobre endocrinologa, en rpido crecimiento, est contribuyendo a los esfuerzos de gestin ex situ. Pa l a b R a s c l a v e Reproduccin, esteroides gonadales, seguimiento no-invasivo, hormonas fecales ab s t R a c t The ability to track gonadal and adrenal activity via hormones is key to optimizing health and reproduction. Through decades of study, a great deal has been learned about the biology of female domestic cats, including endocrine function. More recently, comparative endocrine studies have greatly expanded our knowledge base of non- domestic felids as well. The latter has been possible largely through the development of non-invasive fecal steroid metabolite analysis techniques, which currently is the method of choice for monitoring endocrine function in wildlife species, including felids. It now is well-recognized that a range in endocrine patterns exists among Felidae, with many traits and mechanisms being uncommon, if not unique. Even within species, some individuals exhibit ovulation that is only induced, whereas others ovulate spontaneously as well. Steroid metabolism also differs in that metabolites are excreted almost exclusively in feces, with very little steroid found in urine. Across species there are marked differences in seasonal and social infuences on reproduction, adrenal responses to husbandry practices, and ovarian responses to assisted reproductive procedures. This means that developing strategies to improve health and reproduction of felids must be done on a species by species basis. This presentation summarizes current knowledge on the reproductive endocrinology of female domestic and non-domestic cats, and describes how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts. Hormones are the essence of reproduction; thus, understanding the factors that infuence endocrine function is key to maximizing reproductive success. Systematic studies of felids began in the mid-1970s, focusing primarily on fundamental patterns of hormonal activity in the female domestic laboratory cat (Felis catus) (Goodrowe et al. Blood samples collected over time and analyzed for pituitary gonadotropins and ovarian 329 steroids provided a foundation for understanding the duration of the reproductive cycle, time of ovulation in relation to mating, and dynamics of hormone secretion during P pregnancy. Early reports based on repeated anesthesia and blood sampling also described estrous cycle hormone patterns in a few wild felid species (Schmidt et al. Scientifc papers began emerging in the 1980s demonstrating that steroid metabolites could be measured in urine and/or feces in an array of species (Lasley and Kirkpatrick, 1984). For most species, the decision to measure fecal or urinary hormones is determined by which material is easiest to collect, process and analyze. In the case of felids, urinary analysis of reproductive steroids is not a viable option because steroids are excreted almost exclusively in feces (Shille et al. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determined that: 1) estradiol- 17 is voided in nearly equal amounts as unconjugated estradiol and non-enzyme-hydrolyzable estrogen conjugates (3-sulfate, 17-sulfate and 17-sulfate) (Shille et al. Extracting steroid metabolites from feces generally involves boiling, vortexing or shaking samples in combinations of organic (e. Because some metabolites are conjugated, the inclusion of 10% water can increase extraction effciency signifcantly over organic solvents alone. Within sample variability can be reduced by drying feces and mixing the powder before extraction (Brown et al. Because estradiol-17 is excreted in its native form and as conjugates, both estradiol-specifc and broad spectrum (e. By contrast, luteal activity is best defned using group-specifc antisera that crossreact with excreted free and presumed conjugate pregnane metabolites. Based on regular fuctuations in estrogens, unbred domestic cats have an estrous cycle length of ~2 weeks, with estrus lasting 3-7 days. On Day 3 of estrus, behavioral signs are strongest in association with peak estrogen secretion (Tsutsui and Stabenfeldt, 1993). One thing noted in our laboratory is that in some species (ocelot; lynx; jaguar, Panthera onca) fecal progestagens are increased during estrogen surges, correlating as high as r=0. The progestagens are probably of follicular origin, because concentrations are only a fraction of those observed after ovulation. Another fnding is the occurrence of variable periods of follicular inactivity not associated with season (e. In each of these species, cycles have been observed in every month of the year, but for many individuals not continuously. In cheetahs, periods of alternating estrous cyclicity in some group-housed females suggested that enforced social living might be suppressing reproductive activity (Brown et al. Average fecal estrogen concentrations were lower in paired cheetahs, with subordinant females being more suppressed than dominants. Separation of the pairs resulted in a reinitiation of normal cyclic ovarian activity (Wielebnowski et al. The one exception was a bonded pair where only affliative behaviors were observed, and there was no suppression of follicular estrogenic activity in either female. These results suggest that estrous cyclicity may be inhibited in paired cheetahs even when aggressive interactions are relatively minor, and that social compatibility is important for maximizing reproductive success. Lo n g i t u d i n a L p r o F i L e s o F F ec a L estrogens (o p e n t r i a n g L e ) a n d p r o g e s ta g e n s (c L o s e d circLe) in a s i n g Ly -h o u s e d F e m a L e o c e L o t, tigrina a n d m a r g a y. La h e m b r a d e m a r g a y m o s t r p e r o d o s d e cicLicidad e s t r a L r e g u L a r d u r a n t e La p r i m e r a m i t a d d e L p e r o d o d e m u e s t r e o, s e g u i d a d e v a r i a s o v u L a c i o n e s e s p o n t n e a s n o i n d u c i d a s p o r La r e p r o d u c c i n d u r a n t e La s e g u n d a m i t a d d e L m u e s t r e o (a da p ta d o d e mo r e i r a et a L. With this information, it should be possible to identify mitigating solutions, and fecal steroid monitoring will be key to assessing effcacy. Hormonal changes throughout the post-mating diestrus period in the domestic cat have been well characterized. Starting 1-2 days after ovulation (2-3 days after mating), progesterone secretion from corpora lutea increases and remains elevated for 64-67 days in pregnant cats, and approximately half that (36-38 days) in non-pregnant females (Tsutsui and Stabenfeldt, 1993; Paape et al. After ovulation, serum estradiol-17 periodically fuctuates above basal levels, indicating steroidogenic activity occurs even during gestation. Estrogens increase signifcantly and steadily during the latter half of gestation, with a distinct surge occurring about a week before parturition (Verhage et al. Peripheral prolactin concentrations increase about Day 35 and again just before parturition (Banks et al.

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Musculoskeletal symptoms such as arthritis and arthralgias are the most common systemic manifestations observed discount aristocort 15 mg on-line allergy medicine uk. Fatalities have rarely been reported in patients with severe systemic manifestations (Sontheimer order aristocort amex allergy vanilla symptoms, 1989; Gunmundsen et al purchase 4mg aristocort free shipping allergy xmas tree. Subsequent studies with longer observation periods have reported the coin- 5 Lupus Erythematosus 223 cidence of Sjogrens syndrome to be as high as 43% (Black et al. Reported malignancies in- clude lung, gastric, breast, uterine and hepatocellular carcinoma (Brenner et al. Annular lesions can be confused with erythema annulare centrifugum, granuloma annulare, erythema gyratum repens, autoin- volutive photoexacerbated tinea corporis (Dauden et al. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: Disseminated erythematous plaques at the face and trunk Complement levels may be depressed as a result of either genetic defciency or consump- tion secondary to immune complex formation. Epidermal necrolysis was prominent and the authors suggested this immunophenotype may correlate with the histologic fndings. The initial history and physical should include a com- prehensive review of systems in order to uncover evidence of systemic disease. Follow-up intervals for re-examina- tion and laboratory monitoring should be customized to the individual patient as well as selected treatment modality. Initial medical therapy should focus on maximizing local measures before systemic agents are introduced. The importance of avoiding direct sunlight especially dur- ing midday hours and summer months should be stressed. In order to achieve maximal shielding from sunlight, broad spectrum sunscreens should be used in conjunction with photo-protective clothing. Tese diferences were found in spite of the fact that all 3 contained both Parsol, 1789 and Titanium Dioxide. Stick-type sunscreens formulated for the lips may be better tolerated around the eyes than other sun blocking products. Sontheimer dual beneft of being highly efective physical sunscreens as well as aesthetically pleasing cosmetic masking agents which can provide great psychological beneft for these patients. Twice daily application to lesional skin for two weeks followed by a two week rest period is recommended in order to minimize the risk of steroid atrophy and telangiectasia. Topical tacrolimus may be of some beneft especially on the face and on skin lesions with less hyperkeratosis (Bohm et al. Unfortunately, the majority of patients do not respond ade- quately to local therapy, and systemic therapy is usually required. Up to 75 percent of patients have responded to one or a combination of drugs within this class (Furner, 1990a). Initial treatment should begin with hydroxychlo- roquine sulfate not to exceed a dose of 6 mg / kg lean body mass/day. If an adequate clinical response is achieved, the dose can be decreased to 3 mg / kg lean body mass/day for maintenance for at least one year in order to minimize recurrence. If there is no signifcant improvement by 2 months, quina- crine hydrochloride 100mg/day can be added (Feldman et al. If there is an inad- equate response to this combination regimen afer 46 weeks, chloroquine diphosphate 3mg/kg lean body mass/day can be substituted for hydroxychloroquine while continu- ing quinacrine. When using either hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, ophthalmologic evaluation is required. The current surveillance guidelines recommend follow-up ophthalmologic examination 5 years afer an initial baseline exam in uncomplicated individuals on hydroxychloroquine. The use of an Amsler grid at home may allow early self-detection of visual feld defects. This is important since retinal changes may become irreversible if not found early. The risk of retinal toxicity may be minimized if certain daily doses of hydroxy- chloroquine (6mg/kg/day) and chloroquine (3mg/kg/day) are not exceeded (Lanham and Hughes, 1982). Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine should not be used together be- cause of an enhanced risk of retinal toxicity. Blue-black pigmentation of sun- exposed skin, the palatal mucosa and nails has been seen with these agents. Quinacrine can cause difuse reversible yellowing of the skin, espe- cially in fair-skinned individuals. Tese are less common than in the past, when higher daily dosage regimens of antima- larials were used. Periodic laboratory monitoring of hematological and hepatic function is helpful in identifying any patient who might sufer an idiosyncratic reaction. Johansen and Gran (1998) reported two cases of ototoxicity associated with hydroxychloroquine. Hear- ing loss has been associated with chloroquine and quinine in the past, but this was the frst report of such with hydroxychloroquine. Appropriate referrals should be made if counseling or drug therapy is needed to accomplish this goal. Because of the high rate (approximately 75 percent) of relapse afer withdrawal of the medication, it has been suggested that low maintenance doses for long periods of time may be necessary (Ordi-Ros et al. Alternatively, other forms of therapy such as antimalarials can be used to maintain thalidomide-induced remissions. Since thalidomide is a potent teratogen, special precautions must be taken when prescribing the drug. Other second-line drugs should be considered in females of child-bearing potential. Physicians and pharmacies are required to register with the manufacturer, the Celgene Corporation. Another important adverse efect of thalidomide is sensory neuropathy, which is some- times irreversible. Routine clinical assessment for neuropathy is the single most efective means to detect the early development of neuropathy (Duong et al. Nerve conduc- tion tests are recommended at baseline and periodically during treatment, but the role of 230 Donna M. Evidence of neuropathy, by either high clinical suspicion or by electrophysiologic data is an indication to withdraw the drug (Stevens et al. Some of these side efects are improved on lower daily doses and when the drug is given at bedtime. Tese agents are usu- ally reserved for those patients who have not responded to less toxic therapies. However, they may be needed before an adequate trial of less toxic drugs is completed in those pa- tients with severe disease. The side efects of steroids, especially when used over long periods of time are worrisome.

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Although silver in small infective biomaterials have become a primary percentages can have an antibacterial effect cheap aristocort 15mg on line zyprexa allergy symptoms, strategy to prevent implant-associated infections buy cheapest aristocort allergy testing boston ma. Nevertheless order aristocort mastercard allergy testing on dogs, there is mum silver concentration region, release of sil- incomplete knowledge of the toxicology of nano- ver ions for a long period may lead to materials and silver. The increasing use of silver-based products as antimicrobial agents: a useful development or a cause for concern?. In vivo efficacy of antimicrobial- hydroxyapatite coating for cementless joint prostheses on coated devices. Preparation and antibacterial activity of and biological properties of magnetron co-sputtered sil- Fe3O4Ag nanoparticles. Historical review of the use of silver in the glycocalyx and their role in musculoskeletal infec- the treatment of burns. Lack of toxicological development of antimicrobial coatings: the example of side-effects in silver coated megaprostheses in humans. A silver ion-doped calcium phosphate-based bone cement and prosthesis-related infection. Synthesis of and volume assessment for total hip and knee replace- silver-incorporated hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for ment in the United States: preparing for an epidemic. Silver and new technology: dressings Efficacy of antibiotics alone for orthopaedic device and devices. Antibiotic beads Activity of Ag1 ion doped calcium phosphate based and osteomyelitis: here today, whats coming ceramic power and assessment of its cytotoxicity, tomorrow? The relative of European Ceramic Society Proceedings Book, contributions of physical structure and cell density to pp. Mechanical dic implants and the use of antibiotic-loaded bone properties and the hierarchical structure of bone. Neuropathy caused by silver absorption from arthro- Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs plasty cement. Perspectives on tors incorporated hydroxyapatite coatings on metallic the prevention and treatment of infection for orthopedic implant surfaces for enhancement of osteoinductivity tissue engineering applications. Antibacterial property and biocompatibility of coating formed by micro-arc oxidation. The formation of the bio- films creates several beneficial phenotypes It is well-established that in the wide variety of mainly because of metabolic cooperation, but natural habitats, the majority of microbes does the competitive relationship is also observed not exist as free-living organisms but rather forms (Rendueles and Ghigo, 2012). Interspecies inter- a structured biofilm ecosystem in which the actions involve communication, typically via microbes are attached to abiotic or biotic surfaces. It was also well-documented that erative consortium that allows survival in hostile the bacterial biofilms exhibit an increased resis- environments (Davey and OToole, 2000). Mixed- tance to chemical disinfection, human immune species biofilms are the dominant form in nature, responses, and antimicrobial therapy (Hoiby et al. Here, we describe bio- in the respiratory tract infections between the films formed by some pathogenic organisms, clinical isolates of P. The exact processes by which described, and it was proven that these interac- biofilm-associated organisms cause diseases in tions are executed through a small interspecies humans is not entirely understood. These biofilms can be system of the host, and resistance to plasmid monomicrobial or polymicrobial, usually com- exchange (Donlan and Costerton, 2002). The biofilm for nosocomial tract pneumonia and sepsis of tolerance to antimicrobial agents (Xu et al. The ability and the formation of persister cells (Lewis, 2010) to form biofilms is crucial in the infections also play a substantial role in the P. This rium a model organism with respect to biofilm severe therapeutic problem is described else- formation (Hoiby et al. Despite the high resistance to antibiotics secreted polysaccharides are the main compo- for P. It was also shown that mannitol enhances of the bacterial attachment surface (Lew and antibiotic susceptibility of the persister bacteria Waldvogel, 2004). It was its niche in the human body is anterior nares estimated that the coagulase-positive staphylo- (Kluymans et al. The of bacteria by neutrophils (Kobayashi and DeLeo, biofilm is also positively regulated by the alterna- 2009). It was rate for hospitalized patients in the United proposed that the staphylococcal biofilm changes States (Archer et al. The species that is the cause gastrointestinal pathogens are described that of persistent or relapsed infections belongs to are causes of well-defined diseases. The The genome sequence of O157:H7 strains are two major clinical syndromes caused by Salmonella approximately 75% homologous to E. Another pathoge- mon causal agents are Salmonella enterica serovar nicity island codes for additional virulence genes Typhimurium and S. Bacteria shed into the gallbladder eradicate with the currently available antimicro- and form a biofilm on the surface of gallstones, bials. It was proven that bacterial cells forming a which protects Salmonella against high concentra- biofilm are able to survive 10-times to 1,000- tions of the bile (Prouty et al. The ability times higher doses of antibiotics than planktonic to form biofilm is strain-dependent, and this cells of the same bacterial species (Mah and dependence is well-documented in the case of OToole, 2001). The certain cause of biofilm genus Shigella, is an important bacterial cause resistance is the presence of extracellular matrix of infectious diarrhea, mainly in endemic that protects cells from different agents and may regions. Shigella infection is facilitated by a low- cause failure of the antimicrobial to penetrate infective dose and fecaloral route of transmis- the biofilm (de la Fuente-Nunez et al. A is caused by decreasing oxygen and nutrient large 220-kb plasmid that harbors the genes gradients that exist between the surface and dee- required for invasion, dissemination inside the per layers of the biofilm. This leads to the differ- host cells, and induction of the host inflamma- entiation of the cells when they metabolize (Mah tory response is crucial for Shigella pathogenic- and OToole, 2001). Moreover, cause changes in the expression of many genes pathogenicity of Shigella is enhanced by the and enable bacteria to resist harmful conditions. The number of liter- specific mechanisms, for example, efflux pumps ature positions on Shigella biofilm and its from P. For example, it was Because of the need for more effective biofilm shown that Shigella flexneri homologue of shf dissolution treatments, a number of alternative gene is required for biofilm formation by enter- strategies have been devised. It was shown that ursolic acid no negative effect on human cells (Defoirdt inhibits biofilm formation in several bacterial spe- et al. Examples activity against staphylococci (for a review see may be the compounds found in green tea Kurek et al. Modifications inhibitors need further examination; however, of synthetic peptides by an addition of cationic they can be used as therapeutic agents that may residues or modification of the proportion of be considered alternatives to antibiotics. Such peptides that can effectively pre- tion, molecules able to inhibit this system are vent biofilm formation by Gram-positive and currently under investigation. The major- decreases, allowing for a greater material interac- ity of the new nanotechnological approaches to tion with the surrounding environment (Seil and combat biofilm formation are based on the use of Webster, 2012). The antibacte- particle surface and the bulk solution), and chem- rial compound and strategies described are listed istry are also among the most relevant variables in Table 8.