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A nerve impulse is a local reversal in the charge on the nerve cell membrane that then spreads along the membrane like an electric current cheap 0.5mg cabergoline breast cancer markers. This electric change results from rapid shifts in sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane discount cabergoline 0.25mg without a prescription women's health center brookline. The reversal occurs very rapidly (in less than one thousandth of a second) and is followed by a rapid return of the membrane to its original state so that it can be stimulated again cabergoline 0.25 mg online women's health center greenland nh. The Synapse Each neuron is a separate unit, and there is no anatomic connection between neurons. In other words, how does the axon of one neuron make functional contact with the membrane of another neuron? Within the branching endings of the axon are small bubbles (vesicles) containing a type of chemical known as a neurotransmitter. When stimulated, the axon releases its neurotransmitter in to the narrow gap, the synaptic cleft, between the cells. The neurotransmitter then acts as a chemical signal to stimulate the next cell, described as the postsynaptic cell. On the receiving membrane, usually that of a dendrite, sometimes another part of the cell, there are special sites, or receptors, ready to pick up and respond to specific neurotransmitters. Receptors in the cell membrane influence how or if that cell will respond to a given neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction, the synapse between a neuron and a muscle cell. All three of the above neurotransmitters function in the autonomic nervous system. It is common to think of neurotransmitters as stimulating the cells they reach; infact, they have been described as such in this discussion. Note, however, that some of these chemicals act to inhibit the postsynaptic cell and keep it from reacting. The axon ending has vesicles containing, neurotransmitter, which is released across the synaptic cleft to the membrane of the next cell (Source: Carola, R. A complete pathway through the nervous system from stimulus to response is termed a reflex arc (Fig. Receptor-the end of a dendrite or some specialized receptor cell, as in a special sense organ, that detects a stimuli. These neurons may carry impulses to and from the brain, may function within the brain, or may distribute impulses to different regions of the spinal cord. Most reflex arcs involve many more, even hundreds, of connecting neurons within the central nervous system. Use of the term peripheral is appropriate because nerves extend to outlying or peripheral parts of the body. Its two major structures, the brain and spinal cord, are found along the midsagittal plane of the body. The brain is protected in the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is surrounded in the spinal column. In addition, protective membranes called meninges cover the brain and spinal cord. Even moderate pressure can kill nerve cells, so nature safeguards the chief organs made of this tissue-the spinal cord and the brain-by surrounding them with three fluid-containing membranes called the meninges. The spinal meninges form tube like covering around the spinal cord and line the bony vertebral foramen of the vertebrae that surround the cord. They are the dura mater, which is the tough outer layer that lines the vertebral canal, the pia mater, which is the innermost membrane covering the spinal cord itself, and the arachnoid, which is the membrane between the dura and pia mater. The meninges that form the protective covering around the spinal cord also extend up and around the brain to enclose it completely. Fluid fills the subarachnoid spaces between the pia mater and arachnoid in the brain and spinal cord. These illustrations can also help you visualize the location of the ventricles if you remember that these large spaces lie deep inside the brain and that there are two lateral ventricles. One 145 Human Anatomy and Physiology lies inside the right half of the cerebrum (the largest part of the human brain), and the other lies inside the left half of the cerbrum. It forms continually from fluid filtering out of the blood in a network of brain capillaries known as the choroid plexus and into the ventricles. It moves from the fourth ventricle into the small, tube like central canal of the cord and out into the subarachnoid spaces. Then it moves leisurely down and around the cord and up and around the brain (in the subarachnoid spaces of their meninges) and returns to the blood (in the veins of the brain). Lippincot Company) 147 Human Anatomy and Physiology Figure 7-3 Reflex arc showing the pathway of impulses and a cross section of the spinal cord (Source: Carola, R. Cerebrum Observe in Figure 7-5 the location and relative sizes of the medulla, pons, cerebellum, and cerebrum. Immediately superior to the medulla lies the pons and superior to that the midbrain. It lies just inside the cranial cavity superior to the large hole in the occipital bone called the foramen magnum. Like the spinal cord, the medulla consists of gray and white matter, but their arrangement differs in the two organs. In the medulla, bits of gray matter mix closely and intricately with white matter to form the reticular formation (reticular means "netlike"). In the spinal cord, gray and white matter does not intermingle; gray matter forms the interior core of the cord, and white matter surrounds it. The pons and midbrain, like the medulla, consist of white matter and scattered bits of gray matter. Sensory fibers conduct impulses up from the cord to other parts of the brain, and motor fibers conduct impulses down from the brain to the cord. The cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers (collectively called the vital centers) are located in the medulla. Impulses from these centers control heartbeat, respirations, and blood vessel diameter (which is important in regulating blood pressure). Diencephalon the diencephalon is a small but important part of the brain located between the midbrain inferiorly and the cerebrum superiorly. The posterior pituitary gland, the stalk that attaches it to the undersurface of the brain, and areas of gray matter located in the sidewalls of a fluid-filled space called the third ventricle are extensions of the hypothalamus. Measured by 150 Human Anatomy and Physiology size, it is one of the least significant parts of the brain, but measured its contribution to healthy survival; it is one of the most important brain structures. Impulses from neurons whose dendrites and cell bodies lie in the hypothalamus are conducted by their axons to neurons located in the spinal cord, and many of these impulses are then relayed to muscles and glands all over the body. Among the vital functions that it helps control are the heartbeat, constriction and dilation of blood vessels, and contractions of the stomach and intestines. Some neurons in the hypothalamus function in a surprising way; they make the hormones that the posterior pituitary gland secretes into the blood.

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Spores are put in contact with the testing compound for a period of time; afterwards they are observed microscopically in a slide (usually fixed with lactophenol cotton blue) and spore germination (or its absence) is observed buy genuine cabergoline on line women's health clinic enterprise al. In terms of antiviral ability of plant products buy cabergoline 0.5 mg fast delivery menstrual tea, they can be determined by observation of cytopathic effects or plaque formation in cells infected and put in contact with the phytochemicals order genuine cabergoline online women's health el paso. Other option is, in the same conditions, to use molecular techniques for detection of products resulting from viral replication, as nucleic acids. Moreover, the same plant may have more than an antimicrobial molecule, resulting in effects that can not be easily evaluated. An inhibition or decrease in bacterial population may be due to different mechanisms. Herbs, condiments and spices as food preservatives Safety and high-quality characteristics of food products are some of the attributes growingly demanded by consumers worldwide. Despite technological advances, either by chemical preservatives or mechanical equipment for inactivation or inhibition of microorganisms, there are still problems concerning food spoilage of biological origin. Attention is concentrated on psychrophiles, halophiles and toxigenic foodborne pathogens. Consequently, natural antimicrobial molecules are interesting tools to control microbial food contamination, in addition to their already well-known flavouring properties. The main commercial objective of adding these compounds to foodstuff is extending their shelf-life and increasing, if possible, their nutricional and organoleptic value. As mentioned earlier, these natural antimicrobials derive from plant products and, historically, are been in use for a long time in areas as China or India. Nowadays the concentrated use of a large number of condiments/spices is mainly performed in hot climate regions. Virtually every group of food raw materials can be added with one or more plants/herbs/spices that work as food preservatives, as shown in Table 2. Among the species used for food preservation or that have shown to produce inhibition of food contaminants we find: thyme (Thymus eigii), ginger (Zingiber officinalle), galangal (Alpinia galanga), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata). Cinnamon, cloves and cumin also show antimicrobial effects against pathogens, some of which of foodborne origin, like Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Micrococcus luteus and even Candida albicans. We also find condiments as allspice, bay leaf, caraway, coriander, cassia bark and liquorice as a way to eliminate or inhibit foodborne pathogens. In particular, olive tree leaves (Olea europaea) shows effects against important species as Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus. The molecules interviening in the antimicrobial process have been object of a specific section within this chapter, but among thje most commom we usually find α-pinene, cineole, limonene, linalool and geranyl acetate. In terms of use for food preservation, these natural antimicrobial agents may pose problems that must be addressed, namely the existence of antagonism between different agents, degradation of organoleptic profile and the existence of toxic effects for the consumer. These issues have to be considered seriously and the solutions may be in continuing research of the health effects and mainly in finding ways to lower the sensorial perception of some spices/herbs (optimization of food formulation) or by guaranteeing food preservation by combining different methods (conventional techniques plus addition of natural antimicrobials). Antimicrobial Activity of Condiments 125 Food Group Plant/spice/herb or active compound Microbial target Listeria monocytogenes, Clove oil, eugenol+coriander, oregano, Aeromonas hydrophila, thyme oils, rosemary oil, clove, tea tree Escherichia coli O157:H7 Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas Oregano+thyme, oregano+marjoram, aeruginosa, Listeria thyme+sage monocytogenes Chinese cinnamon Pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli O157:H7, Oregano, pimento, oregano+pimento Pseudomonas spp. List of herbs/spices/condiments or natural antimicrobial molecules used in different groups of foodstuff and their potential targets (adapted from Tajkarimi et al. Commercial availability and legislation Some essential oils have been registered by the European Commission as flavouring agents to be used in foodstuff. In terms of legislation related to foodstuff, both the European Union (through European Food Safety Agency and its national branches) and the United States 126 Antimicrobial Agents (through Food and Drug Administration) have been continually issuing and updating a number of regulations and list of food additives and supplements that have been authorised and considered safe for human consumption. However, the classification of plant-based products as pharmacologically active substances or medicaments is less clear. They can only be included in foodstuff legislation if not proven as being medicaments. The main obstacle on the legal establishment of these molecules or mixtures originates from potential risks to the consumers health. Several studies have to be performed on the metabolic effects, physical and chemical characterization of the molecules, microbiological studies, safety assays, and the cost of performing these experiments is high. Medicaments are molecules with properties of treatment or prevention of human diseases, or with pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action. Each member country has to integrate onto their own legislation the contents of this Directive. It comprises not only antimicrobial herbs and plants, but any pharmacologically active vegetable product, in particular those utilized in Chinese traditional medicine and ayurvedic medicine. The European Commission issued it in order to establish concepts and regulate the trade. They define traditional plant-based medicaments as products, of vegetable origin, targeted to treat some illnesses, in use for at least 30 years (including 15 years of use within European Union borders) and that are to be employed without medical supervision and whose administration does not include injection or parenteral use. Some examples of species employed in the production of plant-based medicaments have already been listed along this chapter, as Calendula officinalis, Echinea purpurea or Pimpinella anisum. Although being natural products (and sometimes with a long tradition of medicinal use), some of these substances may be harmful to patients and this is why European Union requires specific authorization for these products (which are included in general pharmaceutical legislation) to be placed in the market. Neverthless, taking in account the financial burden that some laboratory tests and clinical assays represent, the European Union has introduced a more simplified registration procedure without forgeting the forementioned requirements of quality, safety and efficiency. The companies that produce or trade the plant-based medicaments must present unquestionable documentation proving the innocuity to human health and the established therapeutic use (30 years of use and 15 years within European Union). Conclusion Spices, condiments and herbs, used fresh or as extracts have a very much reported ability to inhibit some microorganisms. However, analysis of scientific literature shows that researchers must take care when comparing results because experimental standardization has not been achieved yet. Antimicrobial Activity of Condiments 127 the use of natural medicines has undeniably increased in western societies. The suspicion raised by conventional health care professionals is due to lack of legislation and control. The therapeutic results and the active molecules of these natural products have a variability caused by seasonal conditions, leading consequently to variable biological activity. In several regions of the world traditional culinary habits and medicinal pratices use plants and herbs in daily routine. Modern conventional medicine is challenged today by the ever growing bacterial resistance to classic antibiotics. More research is necessary to ascertain the real therapeutic value of these products, but these natural resources must not be despised because their clinical and economic value may be greater than has been supposed up to this day. Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 12, No 3, (August 1999), pp. Antibacterial activity of some fruits, berries and medicinal herb extracts against poultry strains of Salmonella. American Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Volume 6, No 1, (February 2009), pp. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review.

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Lubricant the tip of the tube ( at least 1-2 inches)  Lubricant reduces friction and facilitates passage with a water soluble lubricant of the tube into the stomach cabergoline 0.5mg on-line pregnancy pillow. Inserting the tube: 1) Insert the tube into the nostril while directing  Following the normal contour of the nasal the tube downward and backward purchase cabergoline 0.25mg line breast cancer 1 in. Aspiration of a small amount of stomach  the tube is in the stomach if its contents can be contents: aspirated cabergoline 0.5 mg visa menstrual like cramps at 35 weeks. Attach the syringe to the end of the tube and aspirate small amount of stomach contents. Auscultation:  If the tube is in the stomach, you will be able to Inject a small amount of air( 10 15 ml)into hear the air enter (a whooshing sound) If the tube the nasogastric tube while you listen with a is in the esophagus, injecting the air will be stethoscope approximately 3 inches ( about 8 difficult or impossible. Obtain radiograph of placement of tube( as tube is in the larynx, the client usually is unable ordered by doctor. Clamp the end of nasal-gastric tube while you  Bending tube prevents the inducing of secretion bend the tube by fingers not to open 14. Putt off and dispose the gloves, Perform hand  To prevent the spread of infection hygiene 16. Record the date and time, the size of the  Documentation provides coordination of care nasal-gastric tube, the amount and color of drainage aspirated and relevant client reactions. Assemble the appropriate equipment, such as  Organization facilitates accurate skill kidney tray, tissues or gauze and disposable performance gloves, at the client’s bedside. Remove the tube 1) Take out the adhesive tape which holding the nasal-gastric tube to the client’s nose 2) Remove the tube by deflating any balloons  Do not remove the tube if you encounter any resistance not to harm any membranes or organs. You should also wipe acetone out after removed tapes because acetone remained on the skin may irritate. Record the date, time and the client’s condition on  Documentation provides coordination of care the chart. And be alert for complains of discomfort,  Giving signature maintains professional distension, or nausea after removal. To provide alternative manner to some specific clients who has potential or acquired swallowing difficulties Equipments required: 1. Stethoscope (1) 102 Fundamental of Nursing Procedure Manual Procedure: Care Action Rationale 1. Assemble all equipments and supplies after  Organization facilitates accurate skill checking the Dr. Check expiration  Outdated formula may be contaminated or have date lessened nutritional value. Allow formula to reach room  Cold formula cause abdominal discomfort or temperature before using. Explain the procedure to the client  Providing explanation fosters client’s cooperation and understanding 4. Perform hand hygiene and put on disposable  To prevent the spread of infection gloves if available 5. Position the client with the head of the bed  This position helps avoiding aspiration of feeding elevated at least 30 degree angle to 45 degree solution into lungs angle 6. Aspiration of stomach secretions  Aspiration of gastric fluid indicates that the tube ① Attach the syringe to the end of feeding tube is correctly placed in the stomach ② Gently pull back on plunger ③ Measure amount of residual fluid  the amount of residual reflects gastric emptying time and indicates whether the feeding should continue. Injecting 10 20 mL of air into tube:  Inject 3-5 mL of air for children ① Attach syringe filled with air to tube  A whooshing or gurgling sound usually indicates ② Inject air while listening with stethoscope that the tube is in the stomach over left upper quadrant 103 Fundamental of Nursing Procedure Manual Care Action Rationale c. Taking an x-ray or ultrasound  It may be needed to determine the tube’s placement Fig. Injecting 10-20 mL air into Tube (from Caroline : Textbook of Basic Nursing, 1999, p. Feeding the following 1) Hang the feeding bag set-up 12 to 18 inches above the stomach. Insert the tip of the large syringe with plunger, or bulb removed into the gastric tube. Mouth care:  Mouth care promotes oral hygiene and provide 1) Provide mouth care by brushing teeth comfort 2) Offer mouthwash 3) Keep the lips moist 10. Clean and replace equipments to proper place  To prevent contamination of equipment and prepare for the next procedure 11. Document date, time, amount of residual,  Documentation provides continuity of care amount of feeding, and client’s reaction to  Giving signature maintains professional feeding. Sign the chart accountability 105 Fundamental of Nursing Procedure Manual Performing Surgical Dressing: Cleaning a Wound and Applying a Sterile Dressing Definition: Sterile protective covering applied to a wound/incision, using aseptic technique with or without medication Purpose: 1. Cleaning disposable gloves if available (1) 4 Cleaning basin(optional) (1) as required 5. Sterile normal saline (Optional) 106 Fundamental of Nursing Procedure Manual Procedure: Care Action Rationale 1. Explain the procedure to the client  Providing information fosters his/her cooperation and allays anxiety. Position waterproof pad or mackintosh under the  To prevent bed sheets from wetting body client if desired substances and disinfectant 7. Assist client to comfortable position that provides  Proper positioning provides for comfort. Place opened, cuffed plastic bag near working  Soiled dressings may be placed in disposal bag area. When you clean wearing sterile gloves: 1) Open sterile dressings and supplies on work area  Supplies are within easy reach, and sterility is using aseptic technique. When you clean using sterile forceps: 1) Open sterile dressings and supplies on work area using aseptic technique. Dry wound or surgical incision using gauze  Moisture provides medium for growth of sponge and same motion. Apply a layer of dry, sterile dressing over wound  Primary dressing serves as a wick for drainage. If drainage is present:  Drainage is absorbed, and surrounding skin area Use sterile scissors to cut sterile 4 X 4 gauze is protected. Place surgical pad over wound as outer most  Wound is protected from microorganisms in layer if available. Remove gloves from inside out and discard  To prevent cross-infection them in plastic bag if you worn. Apply tape or existing tape to secure dressings  Tape is easier to apply after gloves have been removed. To alleviate associated with struggle to breathe Sources of Oxygen: Therapeutic oxygen is available from two sources 1. Oxygen cylinders ❖NursingAlert❖  Explain to the client the dangers of lighting matches or smoking cigarettes, cigars, pipes. Be sure the client has no matches, cigarettes, or smoking materials in the bedside table. Generally, you should not abruptly discontinue oxygen given in medium-to-high concentrations( above 30%).

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Contributions of Facility Staff to an Antibiotic Stewardship Program Staff Member Contribution to Antibiotic Stewardship Program Clinicians with authority to  Make day-to-day decisions about prescribing antibiotics purchase 0.5 mg cabergoline with mastercard women's health clinic in midland tx. Information technology staff  Facilitate the management and reporting of antibiotic use data purchase cabergoline 0.25mg with mastercard pregnancy 11 weeks. Implementation of policies and interventions Key activities would fall under implementing policies that support optimal antibiotic use and identifying interventions under three categories:  Broad interventions  Pharmacy-driven interventions  Infection and syndrome-specific interventions Examples of policies that apply in all situations to support optimal antibiotic prescribing include: Infection and Prevention Control: Module 7 buy cheapest cabergoline and cabergoline menstrual neck pain, Chapter 1 9 Rational Use of Antibiotics  Document dose, duration, and indication for all courses of antibiotics in the patient’s medical record. This helps to ensure the timely discontinuation and/or modification of antibiotics by clear communication and thoughtful prescribing. Broad interventions  Antibiotic time-outs: Antibiotics are frequently started empirically in hospitalized patients before diagnostic information is available. In places where laboratory tests including culture results are not available, the only option that the clinicians will have is to reassess each patient’s situation more frequently and make decision on continuing, stopping, and choosing an alternative antibiotic if the patient’s conditions does not improve. An antibiotic “time-out” prompts a reassessment of the continuing need for and choice of antibiotics when the clinical picture is clearer and more diagnostic information is available. Some important questions that should be asked by clinicians when performing a review of antibiotics 48–72 hours after they are initiated include the following:  Does this patient have an infection that will respond to antibiotics? While effective, this intervention requires individuals (such as pharmacists or physicians) with expertise in infectious diseases and antibiotics to be readily available, as authorization will likely need to be provided quickly. These strategies are employed after antibiotics have been initially prescribed and dispensed. Unlike antibiotic “time-outs,” antibiotic stewardship program staff conduct prospective audits of patients and provide feedback to the treating clinician; the clinician initiates therapy and the antibiotic stewardship staff intervene only in selected cases. Some district-level hospitals and health centers have pharmacy technicians 10 Infection and Prevention Control: Module 7, Chapter 1 Rational Use of Antibiotics and pharmacy assistants or other clinical staff assigned to ordering, receiving, dispensing, and reporting the drug use. However, efforts should be made to engage any staff performing the tasks of pharmacy technician and pharmacy assistant in active involvement in antibiotic stewardship programs to ensure rational use of antibiotics. The interventions that can be performed by the pharmacist or trained pharmacy staff include:  Changing from parenteral (i. This change should improve patient safety and may decrease the length of hospital stay. The pharmacist can alert the clinician about dose adjustments for admitted patients in cases of organ dysfunction (e. A member of the pharmacy staff can stop antibiotic use when prolonged therapy has not been effective. For example, antibiotic therapy used for the prevention of infections after surgical procedures should be limited to a single dose given preoperatively or for a maximum of up to 24 hours. For example, simultaneous use of rifampicin and oral contraceptives reduces the effect of the oral contraceptive. Consuming alcohol while taking metronidazole or tinidazole can cause some unpleasant side effects. In settings where online resources are not available, textbooks, guidelines, and other job aids can be used. Standard treatment guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for a given infection help avoid the use of multiple antibiotics for managing an infection that can be treated with a single, specific antibiotic. Use of standard treatment guidelines can guide day-to-day prescription and use of antibiotics at the facility. Conducting regular periodic review of the implementation of standard treatment guidelines and continuously improving the quality of implementation will allow the most appropriate use of antibiotics and help avoid unnecessary continuation and prescribing of inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Tracking and reporting antibiotic use and outcomes Data on antibiotic use can be collected to monitor antibiotic prescription, distribution, and resistance patterns and to evaluate the process and outcome of antibiotic stewardship programs. This system is designed to serve as a tool for tracking drug utilization in order to improve the quality of drug use. For example, antibiotic use for a ward can be compared with use in different units within a facility and with other facilities. Evaluation of the process may include monitoring the implementation of policies and guidelines about antibiotic use and the number of prescriptions issued, whereas outcome measures include monitoring patient outcomes. Examples of process measures include but are not limited to:  Using accurately applied diagnostic criteria as per the standard treatment guidelines, if available  Prescribing the appropriate antibiotic, in the right dose, right duration, and right route of administration for the specific indication  Collecting samples for laboratory investigations before administration of antibiotics  Modifying treatment based on laboratory test results if indicated  Conducting periodic assessments to review the effectiveness of treatment and potential change Though the process reviews can be carried out retrospectively by doing chart reviews, given the quality of documentation on antibiotic use, conducting prospective process monitoring could be a better option. Health care facilities embarking upon such activities should ensure that the pharmacy staff are appropriately trained. To be effective in changing prescribing practices, this education should be incorporated with corresponding interventions. Small successes can be built upon over time to reach the goal of having an antibiotic stewardship program. The recommendations and strategies mentioned in this section should be appropriately adjusted for smaller health care facilities. Education can also provide a foundation of knowledge that will enhance and increase the acceptance of stewardship strategies. However, education alone, without the inclusion of active interventions, is not very effective in changing antibiotic prescribing practices and will not produce a prolonged impact. Antibiotic stewardship programs should improve clinicians’ access to and use of national, evidence-based practice guidelines that integrate local microbiology and resistance patterns. Guidelines implementation can be facilitated through provider education and feedback on antibiotic use and patient outcomes. This will ultimately help to decrease antibiotic exposure and result in cost savings. Reputable, Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines on Antimicrobial Use  the Infectious Diseases Society of America: . General public/community-level recommendations and strategies Steps should be taken at all levels of society to reduce antibiotic resistance. Patients and the community can be educated in the following actions to increase rational antibiotic use:  Prevent the spread of infections through regular handwashing, good food preparation practices, respiratory etiquette, avoiding close contact with sick people, and keeping individual vaccinations up to date. Infection and Prevention Control: Module 7, Chapter 1 15 Rational Use of Antibiotics  Refrain from sharing antibiotics with others. Summary Antibiotics have been able to save many lives and their use has significantly contributed to the control of infectious diseases, which were once the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. However, the use and misuse of antibiotics have led to significant antibiotic resistance, thereby limiting their effectiveness. Therefore, the adoption of rational antibiotic use must be a global priority addressed at all levels: nations, facilities, individual clinicians, and the public. Measures at the facility level include activities to promote the rational use of antibiotics using broad interventions, pharmacy-driven interventions, and interventions targeted at effective treatment of specific infections or syndromes. Antibiotic stewardship programs are coordinated interventions at the facility level intended to improve and monitor the appropriate use of antibiotics. They are designed to achieve desirable outcomes, including optimizing clinical outcomes, minimizing adverse events, reducing infection-related health care costs, and reducing antibiotic resistance. Everyone (countries, hospitals, physicians, and individuals) plays a part in the prevention of antibiotic resistance but rational use cannot be achieved without knowledge of the problem.

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