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A small amount of free radicals or reactive oxygen species—also known to be beneficial—is produced as a part of this process order 20 mg citalopram symptoms 0f food poisoning, and Ca++ and the enzymes of the respiratory chain 108 play vital roles as well purchase genuine citalopram on-line treatment multiple sclerosis. The result is that the absorbed energy is used to repair the tissue order on line citalopram treatment chlamydia, reduce pain, and/or restore normalcy to an otherwise impaired biological 109 process. The evidence that low power light modulates pain dates back to the early 1970s, when Friedrich Plog of Canada first reported pain relief in patients treated with low power light. But during this period the mood was neither right nor were minds ready to accept the idea that a technology that was being developed for destructive purposes—one that can cut, vaporize, and otherwise destroy tissue—could have beneficial medical effects. Works by other groups in Russia, Austria, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada, Argentina, Israel, Brazil, N. In addition to the mechanism detailed above, reports indicate that light therapy can modulate pain through its direct effect on peripheral nerves as evidenced by measurements of nerve 112 conduction velocity and somatosensory evoked potential. Other reports indicate that light therapy modulates the levels of prostaglandin in inflammatory conditions, such as osteoarthritis, 113 rheumatoid arthritis, and soft tissue trauma. Light technology has come a long way since the innovative development of lasers more than 40 years ago. Other monochromatic light sources with narrow spectra and the same therapeutic value as lasers—if not better in some cases—are now available. The light source does not have to be a laser in order to have a therapeutic 111 Wong, E. At present, it is believed that appropriate doses of 600 to 1,000 nm light (red to infrared) promote tissue repair and modulate pain, where the visible range is from 300 nm to 700 nm. In addition to these conditions, the literature indicates that light therapy may be beneficial in three general areas: 1. Of course, sunlight is the natural source of light, with the largest bandwidth of any light source, from infrared, visible to ultraviolet light. In general, light can offer a photodynamic effect on the body and entire books have been written and conferences held about the specific therapeutic effects of various frequencies of visible light on 115 Holick, Michael. John Ott conducted experiments showing that mice living under pink fluorescent light were more likely to develop cancer and 118 reproductive problems. William Douglass states, “Photonic 119 medicine should soon be used for diagnosis as well as therapy. To summarize, it has been shown that electromagnetic fields in the light spectrum promotes healing of the skin, nerve, bone, tendon, cartilage, and ligament. Numerous clinical studies now support such 123 findings in a multitude of circumstances. As a precaution, it is prudent that the minimum electroporation gradient of 1 kV/cm (100 kV/m) should be regarded as an endogenous safety limit (see Fig. Ilya Prigogine, a Nobel Prize winner, points out that “nonequilibrium wakes them [molecules] up 128 and introduces a coherence quite foreign to equilibrium. Recent experiments confirm that a two- minute exposure to 100 kV/m peak electric field, and a pulse duration of 1 ns “does not have an immediate detrimental effect on 129 the cardiovascular system…” Also confirmed is that “nonthermal biohazards seem unlikely in the ultra-high frequency range” with the chief physical loss mechanism being ionic conduction and 130 dielectric relaxation. For completeness, the standard applicable to the entire frequency spectrum include the Tri-Service Conference of 1957 which stated that the incident power density should be less than 10 2 mW/cm whereas Bell Laboratories (1960) established for indefinite 2 exposure, incident power density should be no more than 1 mW/cm but for incidental or occasional exposure, it could be increased to 10 2 mW/cm. High Frequency Effects It is worthwhile to initially examine the sinusoidal high frequency effects. In comparison, the 2 power absorption density for muscle per incident milliwatts per cm 133 also peaks at 0. Experiments on human eosinophils (related to immune system) in vitro used 3 – 5 pulses with electric field intensities of up to 5. In spite of the high electrical power levels applied to the cells, thermal effects could be neglected because of the ultrashort pulse duration. Nonlinear fields scattered from metabolically active biological cells grown in monolayer or suspended in medium can be distinguished from nonlinearities of the apparatus. Estimates for the theoretical signal sensitivity and analysis of system noise indicate the possibility of detecting a microwave signal at 1. The practical limit, set by degradation of the cavity Q, is extremely low compared to the much brighter thermal background, which has its peak in the infrared at a wavelength of about 17 m and radiates 10 10 infrared photons per second per cell in the narrow frequency band within 0. The experimental threshold for detection of nonlinear 10 interaction phenomena is 10 below the signal produced by a Schottky diode, giving an unprecedented sensitivity to the measurement of nonlinear energy conversion processes in living 139 tissue. Free radicals contain an odd number of electrons and therefore seek an extra one to complete an electron level. It is known that homolytically cleaved covalent bonds break in such a way that each fragment retains one electron of the bond. Buy a Shower Filter because chlorine gas comes out of city water faucets throughout the U. A home shower is notoriously called “a chlorine gas bath” by those in the water filter business. Since molecular chlorine has a rather low bond-dissociation energy (58 kcal/mole) chlorine atom radicals can be produced by infrared light or heating to shower temperatures. Once chlorine atom radicals are present in a small amount, a chain reaction commences. Each one continuously reacts with another molecule to produce another free radical, going 140 through 10,000 cycles before termination. Antioxidants are the most common types of “terminators” for the chain reaction caused by free radicals, since they offer an extra free electron, which the radical seeks to complete an outer shell. Many types of free radicals exist within our bodies and have been connected with the aging process. It is a toxic chemical known as a “cross-linker” made via free radical reactions, directly contributing to the appearance of 141 skin wrinkling. Antioxidants are donors of free electrons and used externally to reduce wrinkles on the skin and also internally to slow the aging process and halt many disease processes, including 142 stomach cancer. Co-enzyme Q-10 can function as a co-enzyme over and over again as an electron transfer agent or antioxidant. It is quite feasible that as the high energy electrons are transferred to ubiquinone (Q) and cytochrome c molecules, which are the electron carriers within the membrane, free radicals may interfere with the process before the electrons reach the mitochondron, thus decreasing energy metabolism. William Koch found that “polymerizing unsaturated free radicals of low molecular weight stimulated cancer development decidedly. The free radical formed thus at the other pole…continues the polymerization process that 144 supplies the energy for uncontrolled mitosis. Such a flood of electron transfer, penetrating through permeable membranes throughout the tissues, muscles and the bones, quench the free radical chain reactions, since they offer the very same electrons donated chemically and laboriously by antioxidant tablets. Cancer cells thus affected cannot tolerate the respiration cycle, as is well known, with its oxygen abundance and instead, tend to expire. Detox symptoms could take the form of tiredness, headaches, loose bowels, flu-like symptoms of mild chills or fever, dizziness, increased thirst…all 145 short-term and temporary. Rife is reported to have used 3–5 minute 146 treatments for his therapy, every other day. Noble gases are also extremely rare in the atmosphere and their individual lines of light emission are extremely narrow, like laser lines (see Chapter 2). Therefore, the human body rarely has an opportunity to absorb the spectral radiance from such sources in any other circumstance than with phototherapy devices designed specifically for that purpose. Pulsed Magnetic Fields the development of modern therapeutic pulsed magnetic field devices started in the 1960s, stimulated by the clinical problems associated with non-union and delayed union bone fractures.

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If it is symmetrical buy citalopram 10 mg with mastercard symptoms ulcerative colitis, look at the posture testing are fnger–nose coordination purchase generic citalopram online medications you can take while pregnant. Other parts of the distance between the feet – normal safe 10mg citalopram symptoms low potassium, wide-based or examination afford an opportunity to observe coordination, scissoring; how high the knees are lifted – normal or high- for example the way the patient gets dressed and undressed stepping gait; the arm swing – normal or reduced; and if and does up buttons. If the gait is asymmetrical, look at whether this is due to pain (antalgic Finger–nose coordination gait), an orthopaedic problem, such as a shortened limb, or Hold out your fnger about 50 cm in front of the patient’s face. Ask the patient to touch your fnger with his or her fnger and Heel–toe walking then touch the nose. Then ask the patient to tap the same spot frst with the palm of the hand and then quickly turning the hand over to touch with the dorsum of the hand. Heel–shin testing Ask the patient to lift the heel up and put it on the opposite knee and then run it accurately down the front of the shin. Other repeated movements There are several other movements used, though not primarily as a test of coordination. Fast movements, particularly relatively simple ones, may be slowed in extrapyramidal and upper motor neurone lesions. In upper motor neurone lesions, these movements are slow and deliberate, and in extrapyramidal disease, the movements start slowly, becoming slower and smaller in amplitude. Abnormal movements and posture the diagnosis of patients with movement disorders is primarily syndromic and depends on the clinical classifcation of their movement disorder. There is considerable overlap between the movements and classifcation of some movements can be diffcult, and in some patients this is a subject of dispute between experts. However, the most common types of abnormal posture and movement are relatively easily identifed. Abnormal posture the patient can have an abnormal posture as part of a generalized movement disorder, for example the stooped posture of a patient with Parkinson’s disease, with arms fexed and an immobile face. The abnormal posture may be the only abnormality, such as in focal dystonia where K2 agonist and antagonist muscles co-contract and maintain an abnormal position. Gait, coordination and abnormal movements 29 Rapid Athetosis Ballismus Chorea Fig. Rest tremor is commonly seen in extrapyramidal disease, and intention Slow tremor as part of cerebellar syndromes (p. Dystonia, chorea, athetosis and None Large ballismus These abnormal movements have Range of movement considerable overlap and can be Fig. Dystonia, described above, is associated with abnormal posture but Rest ‘Relax,close your eyes may also be associated with slow and count down from 100’ movement or may occur during a particular movement. It is described by its distribution (focal or generalized) and whether it is related to one action (e. Postural ‘Put your hands out Chorea is a fdgety, semi-purposeful and hold them’ movement that can vary in amplitude of movement and frequency of occurrence. Patients are often adept at hiding it by converting some of the abnormal movements into apparently intentional movements. Action Tremor throughout Athetosis refers to a more distal movement writhing movement. It is almost always seen in association with chorea, which is used instead so the term has gone out of fashion. Ballismus is a much more dramatic movement (it means throwing) where ‘Touch my ?nger’ the limbs are thrown about violently. Intention Tremor increases as They are usually unilateral – target approached hemiballismus. These are relatively stereotyped movements, often affecting the face Abnormal movements tremor aims to distinguish these features. Observe patients at rest; they may need Tremor to be distracted to bring out the rest Tremor is a rhythmical movement that tremor – ask them to say the months can be described in terms of: Gait, coordination and of the year backwards or count down abnormal movements ¦ amplitude – fne, moderate and coarse from 100. Ask the patient to hold the ¦ frequency – measured in Hertz hands out in the positions. The scans structures, giving no direct information intervertebral discs and is useful in can be reconstructed in axial, sagittal about the nervous system itself for delineating bony abnormalities. The patient lies with the head in a ring which contains both X-ray emission and detection apparatus. Recently, interventional angiographic treatment techniques have been developed, for example insertion of Anterior cerebral artery glue or coils into aneurysms and Middle cerebral artery other vascular malformations, and Posterior cerebral artery balloon dilatation of carotid and Vertebral artery vertebral artery stenosis. These developments can be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to surgery. A cannula is inserted decay so rapidly that their activity into the femoral artery under local disappears within minutes and they Myelography anaesthetic, manoeuvred into the aortic have to be produced by an on-site Myelography is still used for imaging arch and into the carotid or vertebral linear accelerator, restricting the the spinal cord and roots in centres arteries. Bruising may occur at the detect variations in oxyhaemoglobin indentation of the column of fuid or site of arterial puncture and bleeding and deoxyhaemoglobin, which relate by blockage of fow. Most units to tissue oxygen uptake and, therefore, medium also outlines the nerve roots, monitor pulse and blood pressure very to metabolic rate. Method the patient rests back and 20 electrodes are attached over the scalp with glue. These are connected to a multichannel recorder, which generates a paper tracing or a computer record. A skilled technician monitors the recording throughout, to detect and eliminate artefacts. Normal background rhythm in waking adults is 8–13 Hz ‘alpha’ activity, best seen over the occipital cortex when the individual’s eyes are shut. It varies with the age of the patient, changing especially in children as the brain matures. Abnormalities of background rhythm Focal slow waves may represent focal structural lesions (tumour, infarct, etc. Faster background rhythms are usually due to drugs, especially benzodiazepines or barbiturates. Spikes (<70 ms) and sharp waves (70–200 ms) are brief, near-simultaneous discharges of large numbers of neurones. Spikes and sharp waves may be focal (affecting only part of the brain) or generalized (simultaneously affecting all ** ** * * * * parts of the brain) 2 and 3). Focal spikes suggest epilepsy due to a focal disturbance and imply a focal structural cause; neuroimaging should be considered. Triphasic waves typically seen in hepatic encephalopathy 03 Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease Widespread rhythmic triphasic waves at 0. This can usually be achieved in absence epilepsy, where the typical P100 3 Hz spike and wave discharges can almost invariably be 03 triggered in untreated patients by vigorous hyperventilation. The electrographic appearance of a focal seizure is characterized by an evolving seizure discharge. Normal P100 rhythms are replaced by rhythmic activity which may be 30 60 90 120 Time (msec) spiky, slow or fast but increases in prominence during the ictus and then subsides, to be replaced by slow activity, for Fig.

The vertebral artery passes upwards through the foramen transversarium and then runs medially on the groove over the posterior arch 10 mg citalopram with mastercard medicine woman cast. The frst cervical nerve crosses the posterior arch deep to the vertebral artery and divides here into anterior and posterior primary rami order generic citalopram from india symptoms 7 days pregnant. The most conspicuous feature of the axis buy citalopram 40 mg amex symptoms pregnancy, that distinguishes it from all other vertebrae, is the presence of a thick fnger-like projection arising from the upper part of the body. The dens fts into the space between the anterior arch of the atlas and its transverse ligament to form the median atlanto-occipital joint. The anterior aspect of the dens bears a convex oval facet for articulation with the anterior arch. On either side of the dens, the axis vertebra bears a large oval facet for articulation with the corresponding facet on the inferior aspect of the atlas. It is small and ends in a single tubercle corresponding to the posterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra. The seventh cervical vertebra differs from a typical vertebra in having a long thick spinous process that ends in a single tubercle (36. Note that the vertebral artery and vein do not traverse the foramen transversarium of this vertebra. If the gap between the neural arches is small no obvious deformity may be apparent on the surface (spina bifida occulta: occult = hidden). Two or more cervical vertebrae may be fused to one another resulting in a short neck (Klippel-Feil syndrome). The atlas vertebra may be fused to the occipital bone (occipitalisation of atlas). In the condition called infantile torticolis, the mastoid process of one side is pulled towards the sternoclavicular joint of the same side (i. The condition (previously regarded as congenital) is now believed to be a result of injury to the sternoclei- domastoid muscle during birth, and its gradual fbrosis. The altered position of the neck leads to deformity of cervical vertebrae that may become wedge shaped. The torticolis is often preceeded by a swelling (tumour) on the sternocleidomastoid. Degenerative changes taking place in the cervical spine, with age, often lead to stiffness and pain in the neck (cervical spondylosis). The intervertebral joints undergo infammation that is associated with the formation of bony outgrowths (osteophytes). The outgrowths can encroach on intervertebral foramina narrowing them so that cervical nerves may be pressed upon. Such pressure (accentuated by the presence of oedema) can lead to pain that often radiates into the upper limb. In the thoracic and lumbar regions of the vertebral column adjoining vertebrae are maintained in position by close interlocking of the articular processes. Dislocation of the vertebral column can take place only after fracture of the articular processes. However, in the cervical region the articular surfaces are fat and almost horizontal, so that dislocation is possible without fracture. Dislocation and fracture of the vertebral column are very serious because of damage to the spinal cord. In death by hanging, the dens (of the axis) dislocates backwards (by tearing through the transverse ligament of the atlas), and crushes the lower medulla and the spinal cord. A cervical vertebra (usually the atlas) may slip forwards over the next vertebra even in the absence of injury (cervical spondylolisthesis). It is a diffcult part of the skeleton to study as there is a very large number of named features on it, and many of these are diffcult to identify. The other bones of the skull are frmly united to one another at joints called sutures. Its upper and posterior part contains a large cranial cavity in which the brain lies. Anteriorly, and inferiorly, the cranium forms the skeleton of the face including the walls of the orbits (in which the eyeballs lie), the cavity of the nose, and the upper part of the cavity of the mouth. The greater part of the roof and side walls of the cranial cavity are formed by the right and left parietal bones. Their anterior margins join the frontal bone at the coronal suture that runs transversely across the vault. It is so called as it is shaped like the Greek letter ‘lambda’ (that is like an inverted ‘Y’). The point where the coronal and sagittal sutures meet is called the bregma, while the point where the sagittal suture meets the lambdoid suture is called the lambda. In the fetal skull (and for a few months after birth) there are gaps in the bones of the skull in these situations, these being flled by membranes. Examination of the parietal bone shows that in one area it is more convex than at other places. Skull Seen from behind When we view the skull from behind we see many features seen from the top (36. Now we see more of the occipital bone, and lateral to it we see a small part of the temporal bone. Near the middle of the occipital bone we see a median projection called the external occipital protuberance. Extending laterally from the protuberance we see a curved ridge called the superior nuchal line. Extending downwards (and forwards) from the protuberance we see a median ridge called the external occipital crest. A little above the superior nuchal lines we see the highest nuchal lines (running parallel to the former). Lateral to the orbit we see a part of the temporal bone (purple) and the zygomatic bone (blue). The lateral margin of the orbit is formed by the zygomatic process of the frontal bone, above; and by the frontal process of the zygomatic bone, below. The medial margin of the orbit is formed by the nasal process of the frontal bone, above; and by the frontal process of the maxilla, inferiorly. The inferior margin of the orbit is formed by the zygomatic bone that is joined by the zygomatic process of the maxilla. A little below the orbital margin, the anterior surface of the maxilla shows the infraorbital foramen. Through the nasal aperture we can see some bones that lie within the nasal cavity.


  • Porencephaly cerebellar hypoplasia malformations
  • Richieri Costa Colletto Otto syndrome
  • Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Striatonigral degeneration infantile
  • Sulfite and xanthine oxydase deficiency
  • Cutis verticis gyrata
  • Cerebellar parenchymal degeneration
  • Trueb Burg Bottani syndrome
  • Marchiafava Micheli disease

It must be pointed out that antibiotics are needed discount citalopram online amex symptoms quitting smoking, and that the development of these compounds is extremely helpful against super-pathogenic and proliferative states buy citalopram pills in toronto treatment pink eye. In light of the problems that are increasingly being noticed regarding antibiotics citalopram 20 mg with amex treatment using drugs is called, perhaps homeopathy can now help answer the question by stimulating the immune system to do its job rather than depending on external intrusion. Broad-based Bacillinum, Pyrogenium, Anthracinum, Delphinium staphisagria 16x-30x, 100x. Diphtherinum, Streptococcinum, Staphylococcinum, Pneumococcinum, Syphillinum, Botulinum, Tuberculinum 16x-30x. Usnea barbata, Amanita muscaria, Saccharomyces, Ustilago maidis, Borax 6x, 12x, 30x. Eight forms Candida, Blastomyces, Molds, Epidermlphyton, Chlamydia, Geotrichum 30x, 60x, 100x. The Biophoton Phosphorescence Effect of Homeopathics on Cell Culture Maitreya; Limerick, Ireland; 1994 5. Whether change occurs in the body, mind, social, spirit or environment, most humans will resist. To learn to relax, we must learn to break our old habits of stress reaction and substitute more productive reactions such as clear thinking, calm headed and relaxed understanding. Whether changing eating habits, exercise routines, stress reactions or social skills, change requires work, but the rewards of a healthy body and mind for you and your family are worth it. If we are to truly conquer drugs, then we must stop addiction to stimulation or depression early in life. Allow at least 30 minutes after a meal to relax with comfortable music (not hard rock and roll), good spiritual books (not tax literature), good conversation (not argumentation), or some other relaxing diversion. Any more than 2 hours a day and your mind will distort the problem and not produce a solution. Excessive worry will produce more problems and more worry until this violent spiral results in disease. Use your quality think time to develop quality solutions you can act on to really help you solve your problems and concerns. Wear comfortable clothing, find a quiet spot and let those around you know how important this time is to you. Calcium is a much needed mineral in the body, but improper calcification can occur in the body. This often results in calcification of different tendons which can result in what is known as a bone spur. Calcification usually takes place in the tendons underneath the foot and this results in a bone spur. Calcification can also occur in the intercostal area and produce calcium deposits in the rib area. Another problem area in improper calcification is that in the vertebra area of the back, where the body can inappropriately store calcium around the vertebras. Often times calcium is stored as such because of an inappropriate dietary source of calcium such as excess calcium carbonate or other unnatural compounds. Using too many of these compounds can contribute to the storage of calcium in inappropriate tissues. Good nutrition, reducing stress, and building flexibility also helps the formula to work better. In the field of fractal and chaos dynamics we found that certain biological processes, as well as other real processes, do not follow di stinct, entropic or thermodynamic laws. Rather, through bifurcation points and period doubling, they have pe culiar phenomena. The field of fuzzy numbers has led to the development o f superb video equipment that can focus in and more closely approximate the function of normal biological optics, which work on uncertainty, through receiving numbers and treating them as probabilities rather than exactitudes. Included in some of the initial work from over a decade ago on fuzzy numbers wer e the papers by Kaufmann, Tanaka, Mizumoto, Nahmias, Dubois and Prade. Machines like the Bicom, Mora, Rife and others use direct non autofocusing equipment. The Odds of picking up a camera and having it focus first time are extremely improbable. These non automat ic devices are just as improbable and thus not only inaccurate but even possibly dangerous. By using the technology in this chapter we can perfect energetic medicinefor the future. The odds of pickin g up a camera and being already in focus are about a million to one. The basic concept of a fuzzy number is that it contains an integral as a special case. The case in point is not merely that integral arithmetic is a special case of fuzzy arithmetic. We will develop the poi nt that fuzzy arithmetic approximates more of a language that has a far greater expressive power than integr al arithmetic. A fuzzy number can be an expression in linguistic terms , making it possible to compute with words rather than numbers. The fuzziness of a fuzzy number provides additional degrees of freedom for representing various types of uncertainty as nonuniform poss ibility distributions over the real line. One important property of fuzzy numbers is their closure und er linear combinations. If A and B are triangular numbers, a linear combination of them is triangular as well. This property, which is similar to the closure property of Gaussian probability distributions makes it possible to characterize fuzzy numbers by a small n umber of parameters. This leads to the theory of the so-called L and R numbers developed by Dubois and Pra de. As we have developed in all our books, we must include uncertainty in our definitions of biology, as well as in our definitions of all physics. With the environment of the world becoming more uncertain, this will promote the use of an uncertainty relat ionship in our relationship, which can be utilized through fuzzy number dynamics. With present-day awareness, we ar e starting to realize that complex situations need complex analyses, and that uncertainty comes in. As Po incar said, once we go past the two-body problem into a three-body problem, permutations hav e some strange implications. In analysis of biology, with its million-body problem, we must develop different ways of analyzing. It is the point of this chapter to briefly summa rize some of the fuzzy number formulas that can be utilized in transposing our biological matrices. The reader may assume that this uncertainty leads into utter chaos; nothing could be further from the truth.

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